Treatment of Early Acanthamoeba Keratitis With Alcohol-Assisted Epithelial Debridement
ABSTRACT To study the safety and efficacy of treating early-stage Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) with 20% alcohol-assisted epithelial debridement.
Four consecutive patients (2 wearing orthokeratology lenses and 2 wearing soft contact lenses) presented with pseudodendrites, radial keratoneuritis, and epithelial irregularities. Using a technique similar to laser-assisted subepithelial keratomileusis, we performed alcohol-assisted full-thickness debridement of the corneal epithelium and sent portions for smears, histopathologic and ultrastructural examinations, and culture for evidence of Acanthamoeba. Patients were then started on topical propamidine isethionate and 0.02% polyhexamethylene biguanide.
Immediately after debridement, minimal underlying anterior stromal infiltrate or haze was seen. Dosages of antiamoebic agents were tapered as corneal defects reepithelialized (in 1-3 weeks) with no evidence of post-debridement corneal infection. At the final follow-up, 1 cornea was transparent and the other 3 corneas had very faint subepithelial haze. Cultures of all epithelial debridement specimens yielded Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts, and histopathologic and electron microscopic examinations revealed Acanthamoeba organisms within corneal epithelial layers.
Alcohol-assisted epithelial debridement facilitates detachment of the full-thickness corneal epithelial layer in a controlled manner and seems to be effective in the treatment of early-stage AK. Unlike the fragile fragmented specimens obtained by mechanical scraping without alcohol soaking, epithelial sheets detached easily and the architectures were well preserved, permitting histopathologic and ultrastructural examinations. Most importantly, 20% alcohol-assisted epithelial debridement did not prevent culturing of Acanthamoeba from the removed epithelial specimens.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: Ethanol is widely used in ocular surface surgeries and for the treatment of corneal diseases. However, ethanol is a toxic agent that is related to the development of a number of alcohol-related diseases. Despite the common use of ethanol for therapeutic purposes in ophthalmology, effects of ethanol on the ocular surface have been poorly defined. Hence, we performed this study to investigate effects of ethanol on corneal epithelium from various aspects. Methods: We exposed corneal epithelial cells in culture to different concentrations of ethanol for 30 seconds and evaluated the cells for toxicity, survival, and expression of cell-specific markers and inflammatory cytokines at 24, 48, and 72 hours after ethanol exposure. Results: We found that ethanol markedly decreased the viability of cells in a concentration-dependent manner by causing cell lysis, suppressing proliferation, and inducing apoptosis. Also, expression of corneal epithelial cell-specific markers, both stem cell and differentiation markers, was significantly reduced by ethanol exposure. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines was highly increased in corneal epithelial and stromal cells that were exposed to ethanol. Conclusions: Together, data suggest that brief exposure of the corneal surface to ethanol may have long-term effects by disrupting the integrity of corneal epithelium and generating inflammation, both of which are precursors to a number of ocular surface diseases.Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 05/2013; 54(6). DOI:10.1167/iovs.13-11717 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alternative methods of alcohol consumption have recently emerged among adolescents and young adults, including the alcohol "eyeballing", which consist in the direct pouring of alcoholic substances on the ocular surface epithelium. In a context of drug and behavioural addictions change, "eyeballing" can be seen as one of the latest and potentially highly risky new trends. We aimed to analyze the existing medical literature as well as online material on this emerging trend of alcohol misuse. Literature on alcohol eyeballing was searched in PsychInfo and Pubmed databases. Results were integrated with a multilingual qualitative assessment of the database provided by The Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN) and of a range of websites, drug fora and other online resources between March 2013 and July 2013. Alcohol eyeballing is common among adolescents and young adults; substances with high alcohol content, typically vodka, are used for this practice across the EU and internationally. The need for a rapid/intense effect of alcohol, competitiveness, novelty seeking and avoidance of "alcoholic fetor" are the most frequently reported motivations of "eyeballers". Local effects of alcohol eyeballing include pain, burning, blurred vision, conjunctive injection, corneal ulcers or scarring, permanent vision damage and eventually blindness. Alcohol eyeballing represents a phenomenon with potential permanent adverse consequences, deserving the attention of families and healthcare providers. Health and other professionals should be informed about this alerting trend of misuse. Larger observational studies are warranted to estimate the prevalence, characterize the effects, and identify adequate forms of interventions for this emerging phenomenon.European review for medical and pharmacological sciences 06/2015; 19(12):2311-7. · 1.21 Impact Factor