ABSTRACT The discovery that loss-of-function mutations in the gene DOCK8 are responsible for most forms of autosomal recessive hyper-IgE syndrome and some forms of combined immunodeficiency without elevated serum IgE has led to studies into the immunopathogenesis of this disease. In this review, we relate the clinical features of this disease to studies using patients' cells and a mouse model of Dock8 deficiency, which have revealed how DOCK8 regulates T and B cell numbers and functions. The results of these studies help to explain how the absence of DOCK8 contributes to patients' susceptibility to viral, fungal, and bacterial infections. However, unanswered questions remain regarding how the absence of DOCK8 also leads to high IgE and allergic disease, predisposition for malignancy, and unusual clinical features, such as CNS abnormalities and autoimmunity, observed in some patients.
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ABSTRACT: The hyper-IgE syndrome (or Job's syndrome) is a rare disorder of immunity and connective tissue characterized by dermatitis, boils, cyst-forming pneumonias, elevated serum IgE levels, retained primary dentition, and bone abnormalities. Inheritance is autosomal dominant; sporadic cases are also found. We collected longitudinal clinical data on patients with the hyper-IgE syndrome and their families and assayed the levels of cytokines secreted by stimulated leukocytes and the gene expression in resting and stimulated cells. These data implicated the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 gene (STAT3) as a candidate gene, which we then sequenced. We found increased levels of proinflammatory gene transcripts in unstimulated peripheral-blood neutrophils and mononuclear cells from patients with the hyper-IgE syndrome, as compared with levels in control cells. In vitro cultures of mononuclear cells from patients that were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, with or without interferon-gamma, had higher tumor necrosis factor alpha levels than did identically treated cells from unaffected persons (P=0.003). In contrast, the cells from patients with the hyper-IgE syndrome generated lower levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in response to the presence of interleukin-6 (P=0.03), suggesting a defect in interleukin-6 signaling through its downstream mediators, one of which is STAT3. We identified missense mutations and single-codon in-frame deletions in STAT3 in 50 familial and sporadic cases of the hyper-IgE syndrome. Eighteen discrete mutations, five of which were hot spots, were predicted to directly affect the DNA-binding and SRC homology 2 (SH2) domains. Mutations in STAT3 underlie sporadic and dominant forms of the hyper-IgE syndrome, an immunodeficiency syndrome involving increased innate immune response, recurrent infections, and complex somatic features.New England Journal of Medicine 11/2007; 357(16):1608-19. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hyper-immunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES) is a primary immune deficiency characterized by abnormal and devastating susceptibility to a narrow spectrum of infections, most commonly Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Recent investigations have identified mutations in STAT3 in the majority of HIES patients studied. Despite the identification of the genetic cause of HIES, the mechanisms underlying the pathological features of this disease remain to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrate a failure of CD4+ T cells harboring heterozygous STAT3 mutations to generate interleukin 17-secreting (i.e., T helper [Th]17) cells in vivo and in vitro due to a failure to express sufficient levels of the Th17-specific transcriptional regulator retinoid-related orphan receptor t. Because Th17 cells are enriched for cells with specificities against fungal antigens, our results may explain the pattern of infection susceptibility characteristic of patients with HIES. Furthermore, they underscore the importance of Th17 responses in normal host defense against the common pathogens S. aureus and C. albicans.Journal of Experimental Medicine 08/2008; 205(7):1551-7. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cytokines controlling the development of human interleukin (IL) 17--producing T helper cells in vitro have been difficult to identify. We addressed the question of the development of human IL-17--producing T helper cells in vivo by quantifying the production and secretion of IL-17 by fresh T cells ex vivo, and by T cell blasts expanded in vitro from patients with particular genetic traits affecting transforming growth factor (TGF) beta, IL-1, IL-6, or IL-23 responses. Activating mutations in TGFB1, TGFBR1, and TGFBR2 (Camurati-Engelmann disease and Marfan-like syndromes) and loss-of-function mutations in IRAK4 and MYD88 (Mendelian predisposition to pyogenic bacterial infections) had no detectable impact. In contrast, dominant-negative mutations in STAT3 (autosomal-dominant hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome) and, to a lesser extent, null mutations in IL12B and IL12RB1 (Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases) impaired the development of IL-17--producing T cells. These data suggest that IL-12Rbeta1- and STAT-3--dependent signals play a key role in the differentiation and/or expansion of human IL-17-producing T cell populations in vivo.Journal of Experimental Medicine 08/2008; 205(7):1543-50. · 13.21 Impact Factor