Receipt of cancer screening services: surprising results for some rural minorities.
ABSTRACT Evidence suggests that rural minority populations experience disparities in cancer screening, treatment, and outcomes. It is unknown how race/ethnicity and rurality intersect in these disparities. The purpose of this analysis is to examine the cancer screening rates among minorities in rural areas.
We utilized the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to examine rates of screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer. Bivariate analysis estimated screening rates by rurality and sociodemographics. Multivariate analysis estimated the factors that contributed to the odds of screening.
Rural residents were less likely to obtain screenings than urban residents. African Americans were more likely to be screened than whites or Hispanics. Race/ethnicity and rurality interacted, showing that African American women continued to be more likely than whites to be screened for breast or cervical cancer, but the odds decreased with rurality.
This analysis confirmed previous research which found that rural residents were less likely to obtain cancer screenings than other residents. We further found that the pattern of disparity differed according to race/ethnicity, with African Americans having favorable odds of receipt of service regardless of rurality. These results have the potential to create better targeted interventions to those groups that continue to be underserved.
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ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer among both males and females in the United States and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Although largely preventable through screening, early detection and removal of polyps, screening rates are considered sub-optimal. Perceived barriers to screening have been reported to influence screening rates. This paper examines variations in the extent to which uninsured patients identified barriers to CRC screening using colonoscopy based on race/ethnicity, educational attainment, age, gender, marital status and prior colonoscopy. Multivariate analyses showed that compared to Caucasians, African Americans had an increased likelihood of identifying lack of transportation as a barrier [odds ratio (OR) 2.68; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.35-5.32] while Hispanics were more likely to identify fear of finding cancer as a barrier (OR 2.09; 95 % CI 1.19-3.66). Compared to those with more than a high school education, there was increased likelihood of identifying lack of knowledge as a barrier among individuals with high school education (OR 3.51; 95 % CI 1.94-6.36) or less than a high school education (OR 2.16; 95 % CI 1.04-4.50). Our findings suggest that strategies aimed at increasing colonoscopy screening rates among underserved populations should take into consideration race/ethnicity, educational attainment, age, and prior colonoscopy experience when developing education and outreach plans to reduce barriers to colonoscopy.Journal of Community Health 08/2014; 40(2). DOI:10.1007/s10900-014-9925-8
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Although state Medicaid programs cover cancer screening, Medicaid beneficiaries are less likely to be screened for cancer and are more likely to present with tumors of an advanced stage than are those with other insurance. The current study was performed to determine whether state Medicaid eligibility and reimbursement policies affect the receipt of breast, cervical, and colon cancer screening among Medicaid beneficiaries.METHODS Cross-sectional regression analyses of 2007 Medicaid data from 46 states and the District of Columbia were performed to examine associations between state-specific Medicaid reimbursement/eligibility policies and receipt of cancer screening. The study sample included individuals aged 21 years to 64 years who were enrolled in fee-for-service Medicaid for at least 4 months. Subsamples eligible for each screening test were: Papanicolaou test among 2,136,511 patients, mammography among 792,470 patients, colonoscopy among 769,729 patients, and fecal occult blood test among 753,868 patients. State-specific Medicaid variables included median screening test reimbursement, income/financial asset eligibility requirements, physician copayments, and frequency of eligibility renewal.RESULTSIncreases in screening test reimbursement demonstrated mixed associations (positive and negative) with the likelihood of receiving screening tests among Medicaid beneficiaries. In contrast, increased reimbursements for office visits were found to be positively associated with the odds of receiving all screening tests examined, including colonoscopy (odds ratio [OR], 1.07; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.06-1.08), fecal occult blood test (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.08-1.10), Papanicolaou test (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.02-1.03), and mammography (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.02-1.03). Effects of other state-specific Medicaid policies varied across the screening tests examined.CONCLUSIONS Increased reimbursement for office visits was consistently associated with an increased likelihood of being screened for cancer, and may be an important policy tool for increasing screening among this vulnerable population. Cancer 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.Cancer 08/2014; 120(19). DOI:10.1002/cncr.28704
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND The objectives of this study were to describe, examine, and compare prevalence estimates of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening practices and to determine whether disparities exist for American Indians/Alaska Natives (AIANs) and blacks compared with whites.METHODS Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2001-2010) data from respondents aged ≥50 years (n = 356,073) were used. The primary outcome was self-reported CRC screening according to US Preventive Services Task Force guidelines for endoscopy (colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy), fecal occult blood test (FOBT), or mixed screening (endoscopy or FOBT).RESULTSFrom 2001 to 2010, endoscopy screening increased in the AIAN population by 44.8% (P < .001) compared with black respondents (51.7%) and white respondents (26.5%). AIANs were less likely to report endoscopy screening (45%) compared with both blacks (56%) and whites (55%). For mixed CRC screenings, AIAN rates increased by 34.5%, compared with 29.7% for blacks and 15% for whites. In 2010, AIANs (51%) had the lowest prevalence of mixed CRC screening compared with blacks (61%) and whites (60%; P < .001). Factors that enabled health care attenuated the lowered likelihood of CRC screenings, but disparities remained for AIAN CRC screening. In contrast, once enabling factors were controlled, the odds ratios of CRC screening among blacks were higher compared with whites.CONCLUSIONS Between 2001 and 2010, AIANs had the lowest CRC screening rates in the United States compared with blacks and whites, presenting a CRC disparity, as rigorously defined. The current findings indicate that, although considerable progress has been made to increase CRC screening for blacks and whites, progress for AIANs continues to lag behind in the first decade of 21st century. Cancer 2014 © 2014 American Cancer Society.Cancer 08/2014; 120(20). DOI:10.1002/cncr.28855