The Significance of Insecure and Disorganized Attachment for Children's Internalizing Symptoms: A Meta-Analytic Study
ABSTRACT This meta-analytic review examines the association between attachment and internalizing symptomatology during childhood, and compares the strength of this association with that for externalizing symptomatology. Based on 42 independent samples (N = 4,614), the association between insecurity and internalizing symptoms was small, yet significant (d = 0.15, CI 0.06~0.25) and not moderated by assessment age of internalizing problems. Avoidance, but not resistance (d = 0.03, CI -0.11~0.17) or disorganization (d = 0.08, CI -0.06~0.22), was significantly associated with internalizing symptoms (d = 0.17, CI 0.03~0.31). Insecurity and disorganization were more strongly associated with externalizing than internalizing symptoms. Discussion focuses on the significance of attachment for the development of internalizing versus externalizing symptomatology.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate potential infant-related antecedents characterizing later attachment security, this study tested whether attention to facial expressions, assessed with an eye-tracking paradigm at 7 months of age (N = 73), predicted infant-mother attachment in the Strange Situation Procedure at 14 months. Attention to fearful faces at 7 months predicted attachment security, with a smaller attentional bias to fearful expressions associated with insecure attachment. Attachment disorganization in particular was linked to an absence of the age-typical attentional bias to fear. These data provide the first evidence linking infants' attentional bias to negative facial expressions with attachment formation and suggest reduced sensitivity to facial expressions of negative emotion as a testable trait that could link attachment disorganization with later behavioral outcomes. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Research in Child Development.Child Development 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/cdev.12380 · 4.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Insecure attachment and behavioral inhibition (BI) increase risk for internalizing problems, but few longitudinal studies have examined their interaction in predicting adolescent anxiety. This study included 165 adolescents (ages 14-17 years) selected based on their reactivity to novelty at 4 months. Infant attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation. Multimethod BI assessments were conducted across childhood. Adolescents and their parents independently reported on anxiety. The interaction of attachment and BI significantly predicted adolescent anxiety symptoms, such that BI and anxiety were only associated among adolescents with histories of insecure attachment. Exploratory analyses revealed that this effect was driven by insecure-resistant attachment and that the association between BI and social anxiety was significant only for insecure males. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.Child Development 12/2014; 86(2). DOI:10.1111/cdev.12336 · 4.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The understanding, expression, and regulation of emotion have been identified as core to everyday communication and psychosocial adjustment in children. The aim of this paper is to review and to compare current clinical and empirical knowledge on emotion recognition, reciprocity, and expression deficits in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The paper reviews current neurobiological, neuroendocrine, and neurocognitive explanations for the emotion-processing deficits seen in ASD, while considering the potential influence of attachment on the presentation of emotion-processing deficits seen in this disorder, which is characterised by organic emotion-processing deficits. This review adopts a multi-disciplinary approach, proposing that in order to further compound the established organic explanations for emotion-processing deficits in ASD, more investigations are warranted to delineate the specific impact that attachment orientations have on the inability to appropriately recognise and regulate emotion in this disorder. Further research is required to improve our understanding of the neural processes which underlie emotion-processing abilities in the context of parent-child developmental factors.06/2015; 2(2). DOI:10.1007/s40489-015-0048-7