Genomic HIV RNA induces innate immune responses through RIG-I-dependent sensing of secondary-structured RNA.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital-Skejby, Aarhus, Denmark.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 01/2012; 7(1):e29291. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029291
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Innate immune responses have recently been appreciated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV infection. Whereas inadequate innate immune sensing of HIV during acute infection may contribute to failure to control and eradicate infection, persistent inflammatory responses later during infection contribute in driving chronic immune activation and development of immunodeficiency. However, knowledge on specific HIV PAMPs and cellular PRRs responsible for inducing innate immune responses remains sparse.
Here we demonstrate a major role for RIG-I and the adaptor protein MAVS in induction of innate immune responses to HIV genomic RNA. We found that secondary structured HIV-derived RNAs induced a response similar to genomic RNA. In primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and primary human macrophages, HIV RNA induced expression of IFN-stimulated genes, whereas only low levels of type I IFN and tumor necrosis factor α were produced. Furthermore, secondary structured HIV-derived RNA activated pathways to NF-κB, MAP kinases, and IRF3 and co-localized with peroxisomes, suggesting a role for this organelle in RIG-I-mediated innate immune sensing of HIV RNA.
These results establish RIG-I as an innate immune sensor of cytosolic HIV genomic RNA with secondary structure, thereby expanding current knowledge on HIV molecules capable of stimulating the innate immune system.

Download full-text


Available from: Carsten Schade Larsen, Jul 07, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Macrophages play an important role in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis and contribute to establishment of a viral reservoir responsible for continuous virus production and virus transmission to T cells. In this study, we investigated the differences between various monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) generated through different differentiation protocols and evaluated different cellular, immunological, and virological properties. We found that elevated and persistent HIV-1 pWT/BaL replication could be obtained only in MDMs grown in RPMI containing macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Interestingly, this MDM type was also most responsive to toll-like receptor stimulation. By contrast, all MDM types were activated to a comparable extent by intracellular DNA, and the macrophage serum-free medium-(Mac-SFM-)differentiated MDMs responded strongly to membrane fusion through expression of CXCL10. Finally, we found that HIV infection of RPMI/M-CSF-differentiated MDMs induced low-grade expression of two interferon-stimulated genes in some donors. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the differentiation protocol used greatly influences the ability of MDMs to activate innate immune reactions and support HIV-1 replication. Paradoxically, the data show that the MDMs with the strongest innate immune response were also the most permissive for HIV-1 replication.
    Mediators of Inflammation 01/2013; 2013:208412. DOI:10.1155/2013/208412 · 2.42 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: RNA helicases are ubiquitous in plants and animals and function in many cellular processes. Retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), encode no RNA helicases in their genomes and utilize host cellular RNA helicases at various stages of their life cycle. Here, we briefly summarize the roles RNA helicases play in HIV-1 replication that have been identified recently, in part, through genome-wide screenings, proteomics, and molecular studies. Some of these helicases augment virus propagation while others apparently participate in antiviral defenses against viral replication.
    Virus Research 07/2012; 171(2). DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2012.06.022 · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Peroxisomes contribute to several crucial metabolic processes such as β-oxidation of fatty acids, biosynthesis of ether phospholipids and metabolism of reactive oxygen species, which render them indispensable to human health and development. Peroxisomes are highly dynamic organelles that rapidly assemble, multiply and degrade in response to metabolic needs. In recent years, the interest in peroxisomes and their physiological functions has significantly increased. This review intends to highlight recent discoveries and trends in peroxisome research, and represents an update as well as a continuation of a former review article. Novel exciting findings on the biological functions, biogenesis, formation and degradation of peroxisomes, on peroxisomal dynamics and division, as well as on the interaction and cross-talk of peroxisomes with other subcellular compartments are addressed. Furthermore, recent findings on the role of peroxisomes in the brain are discussed.
    Histochemie 03/2012; 137(5):547-74. DOI:10.1007/s00418-012-0941-4 · 2.93 Impact Factor