Article

Autoimmune response following influenza vaccination in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease.

University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Department of Rheumatology, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
Lupus (Impact Factor: 2.78). 02/2012; 21(2):175-83. DOI: 10.1177/0961203311429817
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Vaccines have undoubtedly brought overwhelming benefits to mankind and are considered safe and effective. Nevertheless, they can occasionally stimulate autoantibody production or even a recently defined syndrome known as autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA). There is scarce data regarding autoimmune response after seasonal/influenza A (H1N1) vaccine in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease (AIRD). The objective of our study was therefore to determine autoimmune response in a large group of AIRD patients vaccinated against seasonal and/or H1N1 influenza. We conducted a prospective cohort study with a 6-month follow-up. Two-hundred and eighteen patients with AIRD (50 vaccinated against seasonal influenza, six against H1N1, 104 against both, 58 non-vaccinated controls) and 41 apparently healthy controls (nine vaccinated against seasonal influenza, three against H1N1, 18 against both, 11 non-vaccinated controls) were included. Blood samples were taken and screened for autoantibodies [antinuclear antibody (ANA), anti-extractable nuclear antigen (anti-ENA), anticardiolipin (aCL) IgG/IgM antibodies, anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I (anti-β2GPI)] at inclusion in the study, before each vaccination, 1 month after the last vaccination and 6 months after inclusion. For non-vaccinated participants (patients and healthy controls) blood samples were taken at the time of inclusion in the study and 6 months later. We report that after the administration of seasonal/H1N1 vaccine there were mostly transient changes in autoantibody production in AIRD patients and in healthy participants. However, a small subset of patients, especially ANA-positive patients, had a tendency towards anti-ENA development. Although no convincing differences between the seasonal and H1N1 vaccines were observed, our results imply that there might be a slight tendency of the H1N1 vaccine towards aCL induction. Although seasonal and H1N1 vaccines are safe and effective, they also have the potential to induce autoantibodies in selected AIRD patients and healthy adults. Follow-up of such individuals is proposed and further research is needed.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
115 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A traditional infectious disease vaccine is a preparation of live attenuated, inactivated or killed pathogen that stimulates immunity. Vaccine immunologic adjuvants are compounds incorporated into vaccines to enhance immunogenicity. Adjuvants have recently been implicated in the new syndrome named ASIA autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants. The objective describes the frequencies of post-vaccination clinical syndrome induced by adjuvants. We performed a cross-sectional study; adverse event following immunization was defined as any untoward medical occurrence that follows immunization 54 days prior to the event. Data on vaccinations and other risk factors were obtained from daily epidemiologic surveillance. Descriptive statistics were done using means and standard deviation, and odds ratio adjusted for potential confounding variables was calculated with SPSS 17 software. Forty-three out of 120 patients with moderate or severe manifestations following immunization were hospitalized from 2008 to 2011. All patients fulfilled at least 2 major and 1 minor criteria suggested by Shoenfeld and Agmon-Levin for ASIA diagnosis. The most frequent clinical findings were pyrexia 68 %, arthralgias 47 %, cutaneous disorders 33 %, muscle weakness 16 % and myalgias 14 %. Three patients had diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome, one patient had Adult-Still's disease 3 days after vaccination. A total of 76 % of the events occurred in the first 3 days post-vaccination. Two patients with previous autoimmune disease showed severe adverse reactions with the reactivation of their illness. Minor local reactions were present in 49 % of patients. Vaccines containing adjuvants may be associated with an increased risk of autoimmune/inflammatory adverse events following immunization.
    Immunologic Research 04/2013; · 2.96 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory multisystem disease. The onset of viral and bacterial infections may favor the exacerbation of the disease, amplify autoimmune processes and contribute to mortality and morbidity. The prevention of influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae infections with vaccination should receive particular attention in SLE patients considering their elevated incidence, their high attack rate in epidemic periods, their potentially severe complications as well as the immunocompromised state of the host. The use of non-adjuvanted vaccine preparations should be preferred in order to avoid the onset of the "Autoimmune (auto-inflammatory) Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants" or "ASIA". In this review, we report that influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in SLE patients are: 1) recommended to reduce the risk of development of these infections; 2) strongly suggested in elderly subjects and in those receiving high dose immunosuppressive treatments; 3) efficacious, even if specific immune responses may be lower than in the general population, as generally the humoral response fulfills the criteria for vaccine immunogenicity; 4) safe in inactive disease although may favour a transient increase in autoantibody levels and rarely disease flares.
    Autoimmunity reviews 09/2013; · 6.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In 2011 a new syndrome termed 'ASIA Autoimmune/Inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants' was defined pointing to summarize for the first time the spectrum of immune-mediated diseases triggered by an adjuvant stimulus such as chronic exposure to silicone, tetramethylpentadecane, pristane, aluminum and other adjuvants, as well as infectious components, that also may have an adjuvant effect. All these environmental factors have been found to induce autoimmunity by themselves both in animal models and in humans: for instance, silicone was associated with siliconosis, aluminum hydroxide with post-vaccination phenomena and macrophagic myofasciitis syndrome. Several mechanisms have been hypothesized to be involved in the onset of adjuvant-induced autoimmunity; a genetic favorable background plays a key role in the appearance on such vaccine-related diseases and also justifies the rarity of these phenomena. This paper will focus on protean facets which are part of ASIA, focusing on the roles and mechanisms of action of different adjuvants which lead to the autoimmune/inflammatory response. The data herein illustrate the critical role of environmental factors in the induction of autoimmunity. Indeed, it is the interplay of genetic susceptibility and environment that is the major player for the initiation of breach of tolerance.
    Journal of Autoimmunity 11/2013; · 8.15 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
21 Downloads
Available from
May 30, 2014