Evidence from case–control and longitudinal studies supports associations of genetic variation in APOE, CETP, and IL6 with human longevity

The Danish Aging Research Center, Epidemiology, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, J.B. Winsloews Vej 9B, 5000, Odense C, Denmark, .
Age (Impact Factor: 3.45). 01/2012; 35(2). DOI: 10.1007/s11357-011-9373-7
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In this study, we investigated 102 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the common genetic variation in 16 genes recurrently regarded as candidates for human longevity: APOE; ACE; CETP; HFE; IL6; IL6R; MTHFR; TGFB1; APOA4; APOC3; SIRTs 1, 3, 6; and HSPAs 1A, 1L, 14. In a case–control study of 1,089 oldest-old (ages 92–93) and 736 middle-aged Danes, the minor allele frequency (MAF) of rs769449 (APOE) was significantly decreased in the oldest-old, while the MAF of rs9923854 (CETP) was significantly enriched. These effects were supported when investigating 1,613 oldest-old (ages 95–110) and 1,104 middle-aged Germans. rs769449 was in modest linkage equilibrium (R
2 = 0.55) with rs429358 of the APOE-ε4 haplotype and adjusting for rs429358 eliminated the association of rs769449, indicating that the association likely reflects the well-known effect of rs429358. Gene-based analysis confirmed the effects of variation in APOE and CETP and furthermore pointed to HSPA14 as a longevity gene. In a longitudinal study with 11 years of follow-up on survival in the oldest-old Danes, only one SNP, rs2069827 (IL6), was borderline significantly associated with survival from age 92 (P-corrected = 0.064). This advantageous effect of the minor allele was supported when investigating a Dutch longitudinal cohort (N = 563) of oldest-old (age 85+). Since rs2069827 was located in a putative transcription factor binding site, quantitative RNA expression studies were conducted. However, no difference in IL6 expression was observed between rs2069827 genotype groups. In conclusion, we here support and expand the evidence suggesting that genetic variation in APOE, CETP, and IL6, and possible HSPA14, is associated with human longevity.

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Available from: Marian Beekman, Aug 22, 2015
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    • "Only two genes have been consistently found to associate with human lifespan: the highly validated apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene, which repeatedly has been shown to associate with survival into old age (Bathum et al., 2006; Deelen et al., 2011; Gerdes et al., 2000; Jacobsen et al., 2010; McKay et al., 2011; Nebel et al., 2011; Schachter et al., 1994; Soerensen et al., 2013), and the forkhead box O3A (FOXO3A) gene, which more recently has been found to associate with human longevity in various populations (Anselmi et al., 2009; Flachsbart et al., 2009; Li et al., 2009; Pawlikowska et al., 2009; Soerensen et al., 2010; Willcox et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Gene variants found to associate with human longevity in one population rarely replicate in other populations. The lack of consistent findings may partly be explained by genetic heterogeneity among long-lived individuals due to cohort differences in survival probability. In most high-income countries the probability of reaching e.g. 100years increases by 50-100% per decade, i.e. there is far less selection in more recent cohorts. Here we investigate the cohort specificity of variants in the APOE and FOXO3A genes by comparing the frequencies of the APOE ε4 allele and the minor alleles of two variants in FOXO3A at age 95+ and 100+ in 2,712 individuals from the genetically homogeneous Danish birth cohorts 1895-96, 1905, 1910-11, and 1915. Generally, we find a decrease in the allele frequencies of the investigated APOE and FOXO3A variants in individuals from more recent birth cohorts. Assuming a recessive model, this negative trend is significant in 95+ year old individuals homozygous for the APOE ε4 allele (P=0.026) or for the FOXO3A rs7762395 minor allele (P=0.048). For the APOE ε4 allele, the significance is further strengthened when restricting to women (P=0.006). Supportive, but non-significant, trends are found for two of the three tested variants in individuals older than 100years. Altogether, this indicates that cohort differences in selection pressure on survival to the highest ages are reflected in the prevalence of longevity gene variants. Although the effect seems to be moderate, our findings could have an impact on genetic studies of human longevity.
    Experimental gerontology 05/2014; 57. DOI:10.1016/j.exger.2014.04.018 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    • "APOE is the only gene accounted as a " longevity determinant " by several independent GWASs. APOEí µí¼€ variants have been extensively analyzed and the frequency of í µí¼€4 allele has been found decreased in long-lived subjects [31] [32] [33] but this result varies among different populations [34] [35]. Recently, Tan et al. proposed a method to identify the signature of mortality deceleration at late age. "
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    ABSTRACT: Usually the genetics of human longevity is restricted to the nuclear genome (nDNA). However it is well known that the nDNA interacts with a physically and functionally separated genome, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that, even if limited in length and number of genes encoded, plays a major role in the ageing process. The complex interplay between nDNA/mtDNA and the environment is most likely involved in phenomena such as ageing and longevity. To this scenario we have to add another level of complexity represented by the microbiota, that is, the whole set of bacteria present in the different part of our body with their whole set of genes. In particular, several studies investigated the role of gut microbiota (GM) modifications in ageing and longevity and an age-related GM signature was found. In this view, human being must be considered as "metaorganism" and a more holistic approach is necessary to grasp the complex dynamics of the interaction between the environment and nDNA-mtDNA-GM of the host during ageing. In this review, the relationship between the three genetics and human longevity is addressed to point out that a comprehensive view will allow the researchers to properly address the complex interactions that occur during human lifespan.
    BioMed Research International 04/2014; 2014:560340. DOI:10.1155/2014/560340 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    • "The e4 allele on APOE, present in *14 % of the population, has been associated with early mortality; while the joint effect of ApoE e4 and e2 alleles, explain a larger proportion of the variation in human longevity (Schupf et al. 2013). Other examples of longevity genes involved in lipid metabolism and signaling are cholesterylester transfer protein (CETP; rs9923854), interleukin-6 (IL6; rs2069827), ceramide synthase (CerS), homolog of the longevity assurance gene (LAG1) in yeast, adiponectin variant ADIPOQ (?2019 del) (Atzmon et al. 2008), and lipoprotein lipase (LPA) (Bergman et al. 2007; Soerensen et al. 2013), but the molecular mechanisms by which of these variants influence longevity have not been reported (Sebastiani et al. 2012; Beekman et al. 2013). Current investigations have expanded their quest towards the identification of protective and buffering genes (Bergman et al. 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: The role of classical lipids in aging diseases and human longevity has been widely acknowledged. Triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations are clinically assessed to infer the risk of cardiovascular disease while larger lipoprotein particle size and low triglyceride levels have been identified as markers of human longevity. The rise of lipidomics as a branch of metabolomics has provided an additional layer of accuracy to pinpoint specific lipids and its association with aging diseases and longevity. The molecular composition and concentration of lipid species determine their cellular localization, metabolism, and consequently, their impact in disease and health. For example, low density lipoproteins are the main carriers of sphingomyelins and ceramides, while high density lipoproteins are mostly loaded with ether phosphocholines, partly explaining their opposing roles in atherogenesis. Moreover, the identification of specific lipid species in aging diseases and longevity would aid to clarify how these lipids alter health and influence longevity. For instance, ether phosphocholines PC (O-34:1) and PC (O-34:3) have been positively associated with longevity and negatively with diabetes, and hypertension, but other species of phosphocholines show no effect or an opposite association with these traits confirming the relevance of the identification of molecular lipid species to tackle our understanding of healthy aging and disease. Up-to-date, a minor fraction of the human plasma lipidome has been associated to healthy aging and longevity, further research would pinpoint toward specific lipidomic profiles as potential markers of healthy aging and metabolic diseases.
    Biogerontology 08/2013; 14(6). DOI:10.1007/s10522-013-9450-7 · 3.01 Impact Factor
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