NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx triggers nucleocytoplasmic translocation of diacylglycerol kinase ζ under oxygen–glucose deprivation conditions, an in vitro model of ischemia, in rat hippocampal slices

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan.
Histochemie (Impact Factor: 2.93). 01/2012; 137(4):499-511. DOI: 10.1007/s00418-011-0907-y
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) plays a key role in pathophysiological cellular responses by regulating the levels of a lipid messenger diacylglycerol. Of DGK isozymes, DGKζ localizes to the nucleus in various cells such as neurons. We previously reported that DGKζ translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons after 20 min of transient forebrain ischemia. In this study, we examined the underlying mechanism of DGKζ translocation using hippocampal slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) to simulate an ischemic model of the brain. DGKζ-immunoreactivity gradually changed from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in CA1 pyramidal neurons after 20 min of OGD and was never detected in the nucleus after reoxygenation. Intriguingly, DGKζ was detected in the nucleus at 10 min OGD whereas the following 60 min reoxygenation induced complete cytoplasmic translocation of DGKζ. Morphometric analysis revealed that DGKζ cytoplasmic translocation correlated with nuclear shrinkage indicative of an early process of neuronal degeneration. The translocation under OGD conditions was blocked by NMDA receptor (NMDAR) inhibitor, and was induced by activation of NMDAR. Chelation of the extracellular Ca(2+) blocked the translocation under OGD conditions. These results show that DGKζ cytoplasmic translocation is triggered by activation of NMDAR with subsequent extracellular Ca(2+) influx. Furthermore, inhibition of PKC activity under OGD conditions led to nuclear retention of DGKζ in about one-third of the neurons, suggesting that PKC activity partially regulates DGKζ cytoplasmic translocation. These findings provide clues to guide further investigation of glutamate excitotoxicity mechanisms in hippocampal neurons.

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    ABSTRACT: Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) catalyzes conversion of a lipid second messenger diacylglycerol to another messenger molecule phosphatidic acid. Consequently, DGK plays a pivotal role in cellular pathophysiology by regulating the levels of these two messengers. We reported previously that DGKζ translocates from the nucleus to cytoplasm in hippocampal neurons under ischemic/hypoxic stress. In addition, we also identified nucleosome assembly protein 1 (NAP1)-like proteins NAP1L1 and NAP1L4 as novel DGKζ-interacting partners using a proteomic approach and revealed that these NAP1-like proteins induce cytoplasmic translocation of DGKζ in overexpressed cells because NAP1-like proteins associate with the nuclear localization signal of DGKζ and block its nuclear import via importin α. In the present study, we examined whether NAP1-like proteins are expressed in the brain and whether the molecular interaction of DGKζ and NAP1-like proteins would be changed in the brain after hypoxic stress. Immunohistochemistry revealed that NAP1L1 and NAP1L4 are widely expressed in neurons and glial cells in the brain with some differences. After 3 days of transient whole-body hypoxic stress, DGKζ translocated from the nucleus to cytoplasm in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, whereas NAP1-like proteins remained in the cytoplasm. Contrary to our expectations, NAP1-like proteins showed no change in their expression levels. The molecular interaction between DGKζ and NAP1-like proteins was attenuated after hypoxic stress. These results suggest that DGKζ cytoplasmic translocation in neurons under hypoxic stress is regulated by some mechanism which differs from that mediated by NAP1-like proteins.
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