NMDA receptor-mediated Ca(2+) influx triggers nucleocytoplasmic translocation of diacylglycerol kinase ζ under oxygen-glucose deprivation conditions, an in vitro model of ischemia, in rat hippocampal slices.
ABSTRACT Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) plays a key role in pathophysiological cellular responses by regulating the levels of a lipid messenger diacylglycerol. Of DGK isozymes, DGKζ localizes to the nucleus in various cells such as neurons. We previously reported that DGKζ translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons after 20 min of transient forebrain ischemia. In this study, we examined the underlying mechanism of DGKζ translocation using hippocampal slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) to simulate an ischemic model of the brain. DGKζ-immunoreactivity gradually changed from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in CA1 pyramidal neurons after 20 min of OGD and was never detected in the nucleus after reoxygenation. Intriguingly, DGKζ was detected in the nucleus at 10 min OGD whereas the following 60 min reoxygenation induced complete cytoplasmic translocation of DGKζ. Morphometric analysis revealed that DGKζ cytoplasmic translocation correlated with nuclear shrinkage indicative of an early process of neuronal degeneration. The translocation under OGD conditions was blocked by NMDA receptor (NMDAR) inhibitor, and was induced by activation of NMDAR. Chelation of the extracellular Ca(2+) blocked the translocation under OGD conditions. These results show that DGKζ cytoplasmic translocation is triggered by activation of NMDAR with subsequent extracellular Ca(2+) influx. Furthermore, inhibition of PKC activity under OGD conditions led to nuclear retention of DGKζ in about one-third of the neurons, suggesting that PKC activity partially regulates DGKζ cytoplasmic translocation. These findings provide clues to guide further investigation of glutamate excitotoxicity mechanisms in hippocampal neurons.
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ABSTRACT: A third species of diacylglycerol kinase (EC 22.214.171.124) cDNA was cloned from a rat brain cDNA library. The isolated cDNA encoded a 788-amino acid, 88-kDa polypeptide. This isozyme shared 58% identity with the previously isolated rat 80-kDa and 90-kDa diacylglycerol kinases. EF hand motifs, cysteine-rich zinc finger-like sequences, and putative ATP-binding site were all conserved among these isozymes. The 88-kDa diacylglycerol kinase was expressed specifically in brain and localized predominantly in cerebellar Purkinje cells. This isozyme was associated equally with particulate and supernatant fractions in cDNA-transfected COS-7 cells and dominantly with the particulate fraction in the brain. After Triton X-100 extraction, this isozyme remained in the detergent-insoluble cytoskeletal fraction of the brain and transfected COS-7 cells.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/1995; 91(26):13042-6. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A diacylglycerol kinase cDNA was isolated from a rat brain cDNA library. This cDNA encoded an 801-amino acid protein of 90,287 Da. This 90-kDa diacylglycerol kinase showed 58% identity in deduced amino acid sequence with a previously isolated rat 80-kDa diacylglycerol kinase. EF-hand motifs, cysteine-rich zinc-finger-like sequences, and putative ATP-binding sites were all conserved between the two kinase species. However, mRNA encoding the 90-kDa kinase was confined to restricted neuronal populations such as the caudate-putamen, the accumbens nucleus, and the olfactory tubercle. Further, the 90-kDa kinase was found to exhibit high phosphorylation activity for long-chain diacylglycerols and was mainly associated with the membrane fraction when the cDNA was transfected into COS-7 cells.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/1993; 90(16):7598-602. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Levels of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidic acid, diacylglycerol (DAG), triacylglycerol (TAG), and free fatty acids (FFAs), as well as their fatty acid composition, were determined in rat forebrain during ischemia and postischemic recirculation. Cerebral energy state and electroencephalograms (EEGs) were also studied. Fifteen minutes of ischemia resulted in a decrease in PIP2 and PIP contents but not in PI content, concurrent with an enlargement of the FFA and DAG pools. The latter were enriched in stearate and arachidonate. Prolongation of ischemia did not produce further changes in content of any of the inositol phospholipids, but the increase in levels of FFAs and DAG continued. At the end of 45 min of ischemia, levels of both PIP2 and PIP decreased by 45-50%, and the total phosphoinositide content (PIP2 + PIP + PI) decreased by 21%, whereas levels of FFAs and DAG increased to 14- and 3.6-fold of control levels, respectively. During ischemia, the TAG-palmitate level decreased, but the TAG-arachidonate level increased; the tissue energy state deteriorated severely; and the EEG was suppressed. A 30-min recirculation period after 15 or 45 min of ischemia led to increases in PIP2, PIP, and total phosphoinositide contents, whereas levels of FFAs and DAG promptly decreased toward control values. The TAG-arachidonate level peaked and the TAG-palmitate level returned to a low control value during early recirculation. The ischemic changes in tissue lipids were completely reversed within 3 h of recirculation after both periods of ischemia. Adenylates were fully phosphorylated with as little as 30 min of reflow. The EEG activity partially recovered during reflow after 15 min of ischemia, whereas it remained depressed after prolonged ischemia. Thus, phosphodiesteric cleavage of PIP2 and PIP followed by deacylation of DAG is likely to contribute to the production of FFAs in early ischemia. Deacylation of undetermined lipids plays a role for the increment in levels of FFAs in the later period of ischemia. The rapid postischemic increase in levels of PIP2 and PIP indicates active synthesis not only from existing PI, but probably also by means of accumulated FFAs and DAG. These results indicate that the impaired resynthesis of inositol phospholipids cannot be a cause of the poor EEG activity after prolonged ischemia. Degradation and resynthesis of polyphosphoinositides and formation of TAG-arachidonate may be important for modulation of free arachidonic acid levels in the brain during temporary ischemia.Journal of Neurochemistry 10/1986; 47(3):744-57. · 3.97 Impact Factor