Diabetes augments and inhaled nitric oxide prevents the adverse hemodynamic effects of transfusing syngeneic stored blood in mice
ABSTRACT Stored red blood cells (RBCs) undergo progressive deleterious functional, biochemical, and structural changes. The mechanisms responsible for the adverse effects of transfusing stored RBCs remain incompletely elucidated.
Awake wild-type (WT) mice, WT mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD-fed WT) for 4 to 6 weeks, and diabetic (db/db) mice were transfused with syngeneic leukoreduced RBCs or supernatant with or without oxidation (10% of total blood volume) after storage for not more than 24 hours (FRBCs) or 2 weeks (SRBCs). Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) at 80 parts per million was administered to a group of mice transfused with SRBCs. Blood and tissue samples were collected 2 hours after transfusion to measure iron and cytokine levels.
SRBCs had altered RBC morphology and a reduced P(50) . Transfusion of SRBCs into WT or HFD-fed WT mice did not produce systemic hemodynamic changes. In contrast, transfusion of SRBCs or supernatant from SRBCs into db/db mice induced systemic hypertension that was prevented by concurrent inhalation of NO. Infusion of washed SRBCs or oxidized SRBC supernatant into db/db mice did not induce hypertension. Two hours after SRBC transfusion, plasma hemoglobin (Hb), interleukin-6, and serum iron levels were increased.
Transfusion of syngeneic SRBCs or the supernatant from SRBCs produces systemic hypertension and vasoconstriction in db/db mice. It is likely that RBC storage, by causing in vitro hemolysis and posttransfusion hemoglobinemia, produces sustained NO scavenging and vasoconstriction in mice with endothelial dysfunction. Vasoconstriction is prevented by oxidizing the supernatant of SRBCs or breathing NO during SRBC transfusion.
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ABSTRACT: Saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) and a variant solution, AS-1, have been used for more than 30 years to preserve red blood cells (RBCs). Reputedly these RBC components have similar quality, although no paired study has been reported. To determine whether differences exist, a paired study of SAGM RBCs and AS-1 RBCs was conducted to identify membrane changes, including microparticle (MP) quantitation and in vitro RBC-endothelial cell (EC) interaction. Two whole blood packs were pooled and split and RBCs were prepared (n = 6 pairs). One pack was suspended in SAGM and one in AS-1. Samples were collected during 42 days of refrigerated storage. RBC shape and size and glycophorin A (GPA)(+) and phosphatidylserine (PS)(+) MPs were measured by flow cytometry. RBC adhesion to ECs was determined by an in vitro flow perfusion assay. Routine variables (pH, hemolysis) were also measured. Compared to SAGM RBCs, AS-1 RBCs had lower hemolysis (p < 0.04), lower GPA(+) MPs (p < 0.03), and lower PS(+) MPs (p < 0.03) from Day 14 onward. AS-1 RBCs had higher (p < 0.02) side scatter from Day 28 onward compared to SAGM RBCs. SAGM RBCs were more adherent to ECs on Day 28 of storage compared to AS-1 RBCs (p = 0.04), but reversed on Day 42 (p = 0.02). SAGM RBCs lose more membrane during storage. SAGM RBCs had increased adherence to ECs on Day 28 of storage, while AS-1 RBCs were more adherent on Day 42. The effect of these differences on the function and survival of SAGM RBCs and AS-1 RBCs after transfusion remains to be determined.Transfusion 07/2013; 54(3). DOI:10.1111/trf.12344 · 3.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rationale: Transfusion of erythrocytes stored for prolonged periods is associated with increased mortality. Erythrocytes undergo hemolysis during storage and after transfusion. Plasma hemoglobin scavenges endogenous nitric oxide leading to systemic and pulmonary vasoconstriction. Objectives: We hypothesized that transfusion of autologous blood stored for 40-days would increase the pulmonary artery pressure in volunteers with endothelial dysfunction (impaired endothelial production of nitric oxide). We also tested whether breathing nitric oxide before and during transfusion could prevent the increase of pulmonary artery pressure. Methods: Fourteen obese adults with endothelial dysfunction were enrolled in a randomized cross-over study of transfusing autologous, leukoreduced blood stored for either 3-days or 40-days. Volunteers were transfused with 3-day blood, 40-day blood, and 40-day blood while breathing 80 parts per million nitric oxide. Measurements and main result: The age of volunteers was 41±4 years (mean±SEM), and their Body Mass Index was 33.4±1.3 Kg/m2. Plasma hemoglobin concentrations increased after transfusion with 40-day and 40-day plus nitric oxide blood but not after transfusing 3-day blood. Mean pulmonary artery pressure, estimated by transthoracic echocardiography, increased after transfusing 40-day blood (18±2 to 23±2 mmHg, p<0.05) but did not change after transfusing 3-day blood (17±2 to 18±2 mmHg, p=0.5). Breathing nitric oxide decreased pulmonary artery pressure in volunteers transfused with 40-day blood (17±2 to 12±1 mmHg, p<0.05). Conclusions: Transfusion of autologous leukoreduced blood stored for 40-days was associated with increased plasma hemoglobin levels and increased pulmonary artery pressure. Breathing nitric oxide prevents the increase of pulmonary artery pressure produced by transfusing stored blood. Clinical trial registration available at www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID NCT01529502.American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 08/2014; 190(7). DOI:10.1164/rccm.201405-0850OC · 11.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hemoglobin (Hb) has multiple pathophysiologic effects when released into the intravascular space during hemolysis. The extracellular effects of Hb have resulted in novel models of toxicity, which help to explain endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular complications that accompany genetic hemolytic anemias, malaria, blood transfusion, and atherosclerosis. The majority of models focus on nitric oxide (NO) depletion; however, in local tissue environments, Hb can also act as a pro-oxidant and inflammatory agent. This can alter cellular differentiation with the potential to deviate immune responses. The understanding of these mechanisms set in the context of natural scavenger and detoxification systems may accelerate the development of novel treatment strategies.Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine 05/2013; 3(6). DOI:10.1101/cshperspect.a013433 · 7.56 Impact Factor