Flotillin-1/Reggie-2 Protein Plays Dual Role in Activation of Receptor-tyrosine Kinase/Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Signaling
ABSTRACT Our previous work has shown that the membrane microdomain-associated flotillin proteins are potentially involved in epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor signaling. Here we show that knockdown of flotillin-1/reggie-2 results in reduced EGF-induced phosphorylation of specific tyrosines in the EGF receptor (EGFR) and in inefficient activation of the downstream mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and Akt signaling. Although flotillin-1 has been implicated in endocytosis, its depletion affects neither the endocytosis nor the ubiquitination of the EGFR. However, EGF-induced clustering of EGFR at the cell surface is altered in cells lacking flotillin-1. Furthermore, we show that flotillins form molecular complexes with EGFR in an EGF/EGFR kinase-independent manner. However, knockdown of flotillin-1 appears to affect the activation of the downstream MAP kinase signaling more directly. We here show that flotillin-1 forms a complex with CRAF, MEK1, ERK, and KSR1 (kinase suppressor of RAS) and that flotillin-1 knockdown leads to a direct inactivation of ERK1/2. Thus, flotillin-1 plays a direct role during both the early phase (activation of the receptor) and late (activation of MAP kinases) phase of growth factor signaling. Our results here unveil a novel role for flotillin-1 as a scaffolding factor in the regulation of classical MAP kinase signaling. Furthermore, our results imply that other receptor-tyrosine kinases may also rely on flotillin-1 upon activation, thus suggesting a general role for flotillin-1 as a novel factor in receptor-tyrosine kinase/MAP kinase signaling.
- SourceAvailable from: Akos T Kovács[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains specialized in the regulation of numerous cellular processes related to membrane organization, as diverse as signal transduction, protein sorting, membrane trafficking or pathogen invasion. It has been proposed that this functional diversity would require a heterogeneous population of raft domains with varying compositions. However, a mechanism for such diversification is not known. We recently discovered that bacterial membranes organize their signal transduction pathways in functional membrane microdomains (FMMs) that are structurally and functionally similar to the eukaryotic lipid rafts. In this report, we took advantage of the tractability of the prokaryotic model Bacillus subtilis to provide evidence for the coexistence of two distinct families of FMMs in bacterial membranes, displaying a distinctive distribution of proteins specialized in different biological processes. One family of microdomains harbors the scaffolding flotillin protein FloA that selectively tethers proteins specialized in regulating cell envelope turnover and primary metabolism. A second population of microdomains containing the two scaffolding flotillins, FloA and FloT, arises exclusively at later stages of cell growth and specializes in adaptation of cells to stationary phase. Importantly, the diversification of membrane microdomains does not occur arbitrarily. We discovered that bacterial cells control the spatio-temporal remodeling of microdomains by restricting the activation of FloT expression to stationary phase. This regulation ensures a sequential assembly of functionally specialized membrane microdomains to strategically organize signaling networks at the right time during the lifespan of a bacterium.PLoS Genetics 04/2015; 11(4):e1005140. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005140 · 8.17 Impact Factor
- Protein Phosphorylation in Human Health, Edited by Cai Huang, 01/2012: chapter 10; Intech Open Science., ISBN: ISBN 978-953-51-0737-8
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ABSTRACT: Flotillin 1 and 2 are ubiquitous and highly conserved proteins. They were initially discovered in 1997 as being associated with specific caveolin-independent cholesterol- and glycosphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains and as being expressed during axon regeneration. Flotillins have a role in a large number of physiopathological processes, mainly through their function in membrane receptor clustering and in the regulation of clathrin-independent endocytosis. In this Commentary, we summarize the research performed so far on the role of flotillins in cell-cell adhesion. Recent studies have demonstrated that flotillins directly regulate the formation of cadherin complexes. Indeed, flotillin microdomains are required for the dynamic association and stabilization of cadherins at cell-cell junctions and also for cadherin signaling. Moreover, because flotillins regulate endocytosis and also the actin cytoskeleton, they could have an indirect role in the assembly and stabilization of cadherin complexes. Because it has also recently been shown that flotillins are overexpressed during neurodegenerative diseases and in human cancers, where their upregulation is associated with metastasis formation and poor prognosis, understanding to what extent flotillin upregulation participates in the development of such pathologies is thus of particular interest, as well as how, at the molecular level, it might affect cell adhesion processes.Journal of Cell Science 11/2014; DOI:10.1242/jcs.159764 · 5.33 Impact Factor