Flotillin-1/reggie-2 protein plays dual role in activation of receptor-tyrosine kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling.
ABSTRACT Our previous work has shown that the membrane microdomain-associated flotillin proteins are potentially involved in epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor signaling. Here we show that knockdown of flotillin-1/reggie-2 results in reduced EGF-induced phosphorylation of specific tyrosines in the EGF receptor (EGFR) and in inefficient activation of the downstream mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and Akt signaling. Although flotillin-1 has been implicated in endocytosis, its depletion affects neither the endocytosis nor the ubiquitination of the EGFR. However, EGF-induced clustering of EGFR at the cell surface is altered in cells lacking flotillin-1. Furthermore, we show that flotillins form molecular complexes with EGFR in an EGF/EGFR kinase-independent manner. However, knockdown of flotillin-1 appears to affect the activation of the downstream MAP kinase signaling more directly. We here show that flotillin-1 forms a complex with CRAF, MEK1, ERK, and KSR1 (kinase suppressor of RAS) and that flotillin-1 knockdown leads to a direct inactivation of ERK1/2. Thus, flotillin-1 plays a direct role during both the early phase (activation of the receptor) and late (activation of MAP kinases) phase of growth factor signaling. Our results here unveil a novel role for flotillin-1 as a scaffolding factor in the regulation of classical MAP kinase signaling. Furthermore, our results imply that other receptor-tyrosine kinases may also rely on flotillin-1 upon activation, thus suggesting a general role for flotillin-1 as a novel factor in receptor-tyrosine kinase/MAP kinase signaling.
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ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic cells have long been defined as round, nonpolar cells that show uniform distribution of cell surface-associated molecules. However, recent analyses of the immunological synapse and the importance of lipid microdomains in signaling have shed new light on the aspect of lymphocyte polarization during the activation processes, but none of the molecules implicated so far in either the activation process or the microdomain residency are known to have a preferential localization in nonactivated cells. Chemical crosslinking and fluorescence resonance energy transfer methods have allowed the visualization of certain glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins in lipid rafts but so far no microdomain resident protein has been shown to exist as visible stable platforms in the membrane. We report here that two lipid microdomain resident proteins, flotillins/reggies, form preassembled platforms in hematopoietic cells. These platforms recruit signaling molecules upon activation through lipid rafts. The preassembled platforms significantly differ from the canonical cholesterol-dependent "lipid rafts," as they are resistant to cholesterol-disrupting agents. Most evidence for the functional relevance of microdomains in living cells remains indirect. Using laser scanning confocal microscopy, we show that these proteins exist as stable, microscopically patent domains localizing asymmetrically to one pole of the cell. We present evidence that the asymmetric concentration of these microdomain resident proteins is built up during cytokinesis.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2003; 100(14):8241-6. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lipid rafts are small plasma membrane domains that contain high levels of cholesterol and sphingolipids. Traditional methods for the biochemical isolation of lipid rafts involve the extraction of cells with nonionic detergents followed by the separation of a low-density, detergent-resistant membrane fraction on density gradients. Because of concerns regarding the possible introduction of artifacts through the use of detergents, it is important to develop procedures for the isolation of lipid rafts that do not involve detergent extraction. We report here a simplified method for the purification of detergent-free lipid rafts that requires only one short density gradient centrifugation, but yields a membrane fraction that is highly enriched in cholesterol and protein markers of lipid rafts, with no contamination from nonraft plasma membrane or intracellular membranes.The Journal of Lipid Research 06/2005; 46(5):1061-7. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Flotillins are lipid raft-associated proteins, which have been implicated in neuronal regeneration and insulin signaling. We now show that newly synthesized flotillin-1 reaches the plasma membrane via a Sar1-independent and brefeldin A-resistant targeting pathway. Consistent with post-translational membrane association of flotillin, protease sensitivity experiments suggest that flotillin-1 is not a transmembrane protein but is associated with the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. The N terminus of flotillin contains a prohibitin-like domain (PHB), which shows homology to a number of proteins associated with raft domains including stomatin, podocin, and prohibitin. We show that the PHB domain of flotillin can efficiently target a heterologous protein, green fluorescent protein, to the plasma membrane. Another PHB-containing protein, stomatin, traffics to the plasma membrane via the conventional secretory pathway. Plasma membrane association of both full-length flotillin and the green fluorescent protein-tagged PHB domain of flotillin is dependent on palmitoylation and requires a conserved cysteine residue, Cys-34, in the PHB domain. The results identify a novel targeting mechanism for plasma membrane association of flotillin-1 involving a Golgi-independent trafficking pathway, the PHB domain, and palmitoylation.Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2003; 277(50):48834-41. · 4.65 Impact Factor