Multimodality imaging for assessment of myocardial viability: nuclear, echocardiography, MR, and CT.
ABSTRACT The assessment of myocardial viability may be an important component of the evaluation of patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. The primary goal of viability assessment in such patients is to guide therapeutic decisions by determining which patients would most likely benefit from revascularization. In patients with chronic coronary artery disease, left ventricular dysfunction may be a consequence of prior myocardium infarction, which is an irreversible condition, or reversible ischemic states such as stunning and hibernation. Imaging techniques utilize several methods to assess myocardial viability: left ventricular function, morphology, perfusion, and metabolism. Each technique (echocardiography, nuclear imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, and x-ray computed tomography) has the ability to assess one or more of these parameters. This article describes how each of these imaging modalities can be used to assess myocardial viability, and reviews the relative strengths and limitations of each technique.
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ABSTRACT: Previous animal studies have demonstrated that the transmural extent of acute myocardial infarction defined by contrast-enhanced MRI (ceMRI) relates to early restoration of flow and future improvements in contractile function. We tested the hypothesis that ceMRI would have similar predictive value in humans. Twenty-four patients who presented with their first myocardial infarction and were successfully revascularized underwent cine and ceMRI of their heart within 7 days (scan 1) of the peak MB band of creatine kinase. Cine MRI was repeated 8 to 12 weeks later (scan 2). The transmural extent of infarction on scan 1 and wall thickening on both scans were determined using a 72-segment model. A total of 524 of 1571 segments (33%) were dysfunctional on scan 1. Improvement in segmental contractile function on scan 2 was inversely related to the transmural extent of infarction on scan 1 (P=0.001). Improvement in global contractile function, as assessed by ejection fraction and mean wall thickening score, was not predicted by peak creatine kinase-MB (P=0.66) or by total infarct size, as defined by MRI (P=0.70). The best predictor of global improvement was the extent of dysfunctional myocardium that was not infarcted or had infarction comprising <25% of left ventricular wall thickness (P<0.005 for ejection fraction, P<0.001 for mean wall thickening score). In patients with acute myocardial infarction, the transmural extent of infarction defined by ceMRI predicts improvement in contractile function.Circulation 09/2001; 104(10):1101-7. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thallium-201 reinjection imaging and positron emission tomography provide concordant information regarding myocardial viability in many patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. It is unclear whether this concordance applies to patients with severe, as well as those with moderate, LV dysfunction. We studied 44 patients with chronic coronary artery disease and LV dysfunction, subgrouped on the basis of severity of dysfunction: 23 patients had moderate and 21 had severe dysfunction (ejection fractions 34 +/- 6% and 19 +/- 6%). Patients underwent exercise thallium single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 3- to 4-hour redistribution and reinjection imaging, as well as positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 18fluorodeoxyglucose and 15O-water. Data were analyzed quantitatively in aligned transaxial PET and SPECT tomograms. A myocardial region was considered nonviable by PET if 18fluorodeoxyglucose activity was <50% of that in a normal region, associated with proportional reduction in blood flow. Similarly, regions were considered nonviable by thallium if activity was <50% of activity in normal regions on redistribution and reinjection studies. Thallium SPECT and PET data were concordant regarding viability in 98% and 93% of myocardial regions, respectively, in patients with moderate and with severe LV dysfunction. Lower concordance was observed only when regions with severe irreversible thallium perfusion defects on redistribution images were considered in both groups: 86% and 78%, respectively (p <0.01). Thus, thallium SPECT with reinjection yields information regarding regional myocardial viability that is similar to that provided by PET in patients with severe as well as moderate LV dysfunction. However, there is discordance in >20% of regions manifesting severe irreversible thallium defects in patients with severely reduced LV function.The American Journal of Cardiology 12/1998; 82(9):1001-7. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In patients with chronic coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction, the distinction between ventricular dysfunction arising from myocardial fibrosis and ischemic, but viable, myocardium has important clinical implications. By positron emission tomography (PET), enhanced fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in myocardial segments with impaired function and reduced blood flow is evidence of myocardial viability. Reinjection of thallium-201 at rest immediately after stress-redistribution imaging may also provide evidence of myocardial viability by demonstrating thallium uptake in regions with apparently "irreversible" defects. To compare these two methods, we studied 16 patients with chronic coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction, 27 +/- 9%), all of whom had irreversible defects on standard exercise-redistribution thallium single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Thallium was reinjected immediately after the redistribution study, and SPECT images were reacquired. The patients also underwent PET imaging with FDG and oxygen-15-labeled water. A total of 432 myocardial segments were analyzed from comparable transaxial tomograms, of which 166 (38%) had irreversible thallium defects on redistribution images before reinjection. FDG uptake was demonstrated in 121 (73%) of these irreversible defects. Irreversible defects were then subgrouped according to the degree of thallium activity, relative to peak activity in normal regions. Irreversible defects with only mild (60-85% of peak activity) or moderate (50-59% of peak) reduction in thallium activity were considered viable on the basis of FDG uptake in 91% and 84% of these segments, respectively. In contrast, in irreversible defects with severe reduction in thallium activity (less than 50% of peak), FDG uptake was present in 51% of segments. In such severe defects, an identical number of segments (51%) demonstrated enhanced uptake of thallium after reinjection. In these severe "irreversible" defects, data on myocardial viability were concordant by the two techniques in 88% of segments, with 45% identified as viable and 43% identified as scar on both PET and thallium reinjection studies. These observations suggest that thallium imaging can be used to identify viable myocardium in patients with chronic coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. Most irreversible defects with only mild or moderate reduction in thallium activity represent viable myocardium as confirmed by FDG uptake.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)Circulation 02/1991; 83(1):26-37. · 15.20 Impact Factor