Circulating microRNAs involved in multiple sclerosis.
ABSTRACT Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated, demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. After traumatic brain injury, it is the leading cause of neurology disability in young adults. Considerable advances have been made in identifying genes involved in MS but the genetic and phenotypic complexity associated with this disease significantly hinders any progress. A novel class of small RNA molecules, microRNAs (miRNAs) has acquired much attention because they regulate the expression of up to 30% of protein-coding genes and may play a pivotal role in the development of many, if not all, complex diseases. Seven published studies investigated miRNAs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, CD4+, CD8+ T cell, B lymphocytes, peripheral blood leukocytes, whole blood and brain astrocytes with MS risk. The absence of MS studies investigating plasma miRNA prompted the current investigation of identifying a circulating miRNA signature in MS. We conducted a microarray analysis of over 900 known miRNA transcripts from plasma samples collected from four MS individuals and four sex-aged and ethnicity matched healthy controls. We identified six plasma miRNA (miR-614, miR-572, miR-648, miR-1826, miR-422a and miR-22) that were significantly up-regulated and one plasma miRNA (miR-1979) that was significantly down-regulated in MS individuals. Both miR-422a and miR-22 have previously been implicated in MS. The present study is the first to show a circulating miRNA signature involved in MS that could serve as a potential prognostic and diagnostic biomarker for MS.
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ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a novel class of molecules regulating gene expression, have been hailed as modulators of many biological processes and disease states. Recent studies demonstrated an important role of miRNAs in the processes of inflammation and cancer, however, there are little data implicating miRNAs in peripheral pain. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a clinical syndrome of pelvic pain and urinary urgency/frequency in the absence of a specific cause. BPS is a chronic inflammatory condition that might share some of the pathogenetic mechanisms with its common co-morbidities inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), asthma and autoimmune diseases. Using miRNA profiling in BPS and the information about validated miRNA targets, we delineated the signaling pathways activated in this and other inflammatory pain disorders. This review projects the miRNA profiling and functional data originating from the research in bladder cancer and immune-mediated diseases on the BPS-specific miRNAs with the aim to gain new insight into the pathogenesis of this enigmatic disorder, and highlighting the common regulatory mechanisms of pain and inflammation.Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 03/2013; · 6.57 Impact Factor
Article: Next-Generation Sequencing Identifies MicroRNAs that Associate with Pathogenic Autoimmune Neuroinflammation in Rats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to regulate most biological processes and have been found dysregulated in a variety of diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we characterized miRNAs that associate with susceptibility to develop experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats, a well-established animal model of MS. Using Illumina next-generation sequencing, we detected 544 miRNAs in the lymph nodes of EAE-susceptible Dark Agouti and EAE-resistant Piebald Virol Glaxo rats during immune activation. Forty-three miRNAs were found differentially expressed between the two strains, with 81% (35 out of 43) showing higher expression in the susceptible strain. Only 33% of tested miRNAs displayed differential expression in naive lymph nodes, suggesting that a majority of regulated miRNAs are EAE dependent. Further investigation of a selected six miRNAs indicates differences in cellular source and kinetics of expression. Several of the miRNAs, including miR-146a, miR-21, miR-181a, miR-223, and let-7, have previously been implicated in immune system regulation. Moreover, 77% (33 out of 43) of the miRNAs were associated with MS and other autoimmune diseases. Target genes likely regulated by the miRNAs were identified using computational predictions combined with whole-genome expression data. Differentially expressed miRNAs and their targets involve functions important for MS and EAE, such as immune cell migration through targeting genes like Cxcr3 and cellular maintenance and signaling by regulation of Prkcd and Stat1. In addition, we demonstrated that these three genes are direct targets of miR-181a. Our study highlights the impact of multiple miRNAs, displaying diverse kinetics and cellular sources, on development of pathogenic autoimmune inflammation.The Journal of Immunology 03/2013; · 5.79 Impact Factor