TRAIL(+) human plasmacytoid dendritic cells kill tumor cells in vitro: mechanisms of imiquimod- and IFN-α-mediated antitumor reactivity.

Division of Immunology, Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090, Austria.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.52). 02/2012; 188(4):1583-91. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1102437
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Dendritic cells (DCs) not only exhibit the unique capacity to evoke primary immune responses, but may also acquire TLR-triggered cytotoxic activity. We and others have previously shown that TLR7/8- and TLR9-stimulated plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) isolated from human peripheral blood express the effector molecule TRAIL. The exact mechanisms through which pDCs acquire and elicit their cytotoxic activity are still not clear. We now show that in the absence of costimulators, TRAIL induction on pDCs occurs with agonists to intracellular TLRs only and is accompanied by a phenotypic as well as functional maturation, as evidenced by a comparatively superior MLR stimulatory capacity. pDCs acquired TRAIL in an IFN-α/β-dependent fashion and, notably, TRAIL expression on pDCs could be induced by IFN-α stimulation alone. At a functional level, both TLR7/8- (imiquimod [IMQ]) and TLR9-stimulated (CpG2216) pDCs lysed Jurkat T cells in a TRAIL- and cell contact-dependent fashion. More importantly, IFN-α-activated pDCs acquired similar cytotoxic properties, independent of TLR stimulation and maturation. Both IMQ- and IFN-α-activated pDCs could also lyse certain melanoma cell lines in a TRAIL-dependent fashion. Interestingly, suboptimal doses of IMQ and IFN-α exhibited synergistic action, leading to optimal TRAIL expression and melanoma cell lysis by pDCs. Our data imply that tumor immunity in patients receiving adjuvant IMQ and/or IFN-α may involve the active participation of cytotoxic pDCs.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The spectrum of TNF-α-producing cells in patients with psoriasis, as well as their fate during treatment with TNF-α antagonists, is not clearly defined. We sought to analyze the effects of anti-TNF-α treatment on TNF-α(+) cells in the skin and blood of patients with psoriasis. Lesional psoriatic skin was analyzed by means of immunohistologic staining and quantitative RT-PCR, and peripheral blood cells were phenotypically characterized by means of multicolor immunofluorescence labeling. By using a tyramide-based signal amplification system, TNF-α was detected in dermal CD45(+)HLA-DR(+) leukocytes consisting of CD11c(+) dendritic cells and CD163(+) macrophages. In peripheral blood we observed an increase in the TNF-α-producing myeloid subsets of CD14(-) 6-sulfo-LacNac(+) dendritic cells and CD14(+)CD16(+) "intermediate" monocytes compared with healthy control subjects. Strikingly, we did not find detectable levels of TNF-α in other cells, including keratinocytes or T cells, making these cell types unlikely targets of TNF-α blockers. Up to 48 hours after the intravenous administration of the TNF-α antagonist infliximab, we encountered no overt changes in numbers of TNF-α(+) cells or signs of apoptosis in lesional psoriatic skin. Yet we observed a rapid decrease in IL-12p40, IL-1β, CCL20, and IL12RB1 mRNA levels. Consistently, TNF-α blockade during in vitro stimulation of 6-sulfo-LacNac DCs resulted in decreased production of IL-12 and IL-23 but not IL-6. In a mixed leukocyte reaction infliximab led to significantly decreased proliferation rates of T cells independent of the Fc antibody fragment. The decrease in tissue inflammation during anti-TNF-α therapy is not due to immediate killing of TNF-α-producing cells but rather results from a rapid downregulation of the pathogenic IL-12/IL-23-driven immune response.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 07/2013; · 12.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Imiquimod and resiquimod represent Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and 8 agonists, which emerged as attractive candidates for tumor therapy. To elucidate immune cells, which mainly contribute to TLR7/8-mediated antitumoral activity, we investigated the impact of imiquimod and resiquimod on native human 6-sulfo LacNAc (slan) dendritic cells (DCs). We found that both TLR7/8 agonists significantly improve the release of various proinflammatory cytokines by slanDCs and promote their tumor-directed cytotoxic activity. Furthermore, resiquimod efficiently augmented the ability of slanDCs to stimulate T cells and natural killer cells. These results indicate that imiquimod and resiquimod trigger various immunostimulatory properties of slanDCs, which may contribute to their antitumor effects.
    Cancer letters 02/2013; · 5.02 Impact Factor
  • Arthritis & Rheumatology 04/2013; 65(4). · 7.48 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Aug 19, 2014