Long-term effect of lamivudine treatment on the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hepatitis B virus infection.
ABSTRACT Nucleotide analogues have recently been approved for the treatment of patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, it is still controversial whether the decrease of HBV-DNA amount induced by treatment with nucleotide analogues can reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in HBV patients.
A total of 293 HBV patients without HCC who were treated with lamivudine (LAM) were enrolled in a multicenter trial. The incidence of HCC was examined after the start of LAM therapy, and the risk factors for liver carcinogenesis were analyzed. The mean follow-up period was 67.6 ± 27.4 months.
On multivariate analysis for HCC development in all patients, age ≥50 years, platelet count <14.0 × 10(4)/mm(3), cirrhosis, and median HBV-DNA levels of ≥4.0 log copies/ml during LAM treatment were significant risk factors. The cumulative carcinogenesis rate at 5 years was 3% in patients with chronic hepatitis and 30% in those with cirrhosis. For the chronic hepatitis patients, the log-rank test showed the significant risk factors related to HCC development to be age ≥50 years, platelet count <14.0 × 10(4)/mm(3), and hepatitis B e antigen negativity, but median HBV-DNA levels of <4.0 log copies/ml (maintained viral response, MVR) did not significantly suppress the development of HCC. In cirrhosis patients, however, the attainment of MVR during LAM treatment was revealed to reduce the risk of HCC development.
These results suggest that the incidence of HCC in HBV patients with cirrhosis can be reduced in those with an MVR induced by consecutive LAM treatment.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection leads to development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the effects of treatment in preventing HCC are not clear. To study the effects of interferon (IFN) or nucleoside/tide analogue (NA) on the risk of developing HCC in CHB patients. Randomized trials, case-control and cohort studies were retrieved from five electronic databases and international conferences over the past 10 years. Relative risks (RRs) of HCC with or without treatment were studied. Twelve studies (n = 2742) enrolling patients treated by IFN vs. control showed that the risk of HCC after treatment was reduced by 34% (RR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.48-0.89). Benefit is more significant among patients with early cirrhosis than among those without cirrhosis. Five studies (n = 2289) compared patients treated by NA with control. The risk of HCC after treatment was reduced by 78% (RR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.10-0.50). HBeAg-positive patients showed more significantly reduced HCC risk with treatment. Patients without cirrhosis benefited more from NA than those with cirrhosis. Resistance to NA has obviated the benefit of the treatment. IFN or NA treatment significantly reduces risk of HCC. While IFN benefited patients with cirrhosis, NA benefited patients with no cirrhosis and HBeAg-positive CHB infection.Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 11/2008; 28(9):1067-77. · 4.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level is a marker of viral replication and efficacy of antiviral treatment in individuals with chronic hepatitis B. To evaluate the relationship between serum HBV DNA level and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Prospective cohort study of 3653 participants (aged 30-65 years), who were seropositive for the hepatitis B surface antigen and seronegative for antibodies against the hepatitis C virus, recruited to a community-based cancer screening program in Taiwan between 1991 and 1992. Incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma during follow-up examination and by data linkage with the national cancer registry and the death certification systems. There were 164 incident cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and 346 deaths during a mean follow-up of 11.4 years and 41,779 person-years of follow-up. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma increased with serum HBV DNA level at study entry in a dose-response relationship ranging from 108 per 100,000 person-years for an HBV DNA level of less than 300 copies/mL to 1152 per 100,000 person-years for an HBV DNA level of 1 million copies/mL or greater. The corresponding cumulative incidence rates of hepatocellular carcinoma were 1.3% and 14.9%, respectively. The biological gradient of hepatocellular carcinoma by serum HBV DNA levels remained significant (P<.001) after adjustment for sex, age, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, serostatus for the hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), serum alanine aminotransferase level, and liver cirrhosis at study entry. The dose-response relationship was most prominent for participants who were seronegative for HBeAg with normal serum alanine aminotransferase levels and no liver cirrhosis at study entry. Participants with persistent elevation of serum HBV DNA level during follow-up had the highest hepatocellular carcinoma risk. Elevated serum HBV DNA level (> or =10,000 copies/mL) is a strong risk predictor of hepatocellular carcinoma independent of HBeAg, serum alanine aminotransferase level, and liver cirrhosis.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 01/2006; 295(1):65-73. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The antiviral effect of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) added to ongoing lamivudine (LAM) treatment for LAM-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB) differs among patients. We investigated clinical factors affecting the response to ADV therapy in LAM-resistant CHB. The subjects were 75 LAM-resistant CHB patients treated with ADV in addition to LAM. Virological response (VR) was defined as HBV DNA clearance (<2.6 logcopies/ml) at 12 months after the start of ADV therapy. Clinical factors contributing to VR were examined by univariate and multivariate analyses. Lower HBV DNA at baseline and negative hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) were significant factors affecting VR in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, lower HBV DNA at baseline (P = 0.005), negative HBeAg (P = 0.009), and higher ALT (P = 0.036) were significant independent factors contributing to VR. In HBeAg-positive patients, HBV DNA clearance was more frequently observed during ADV therapy in patients with baseline HBV DNA < or = 7.0 logcopies/ml than in those with baseline HBV DNA >7.0 logcopies/ml. By contrast, the link of lower HBV DNA at baseline to better therapeutic response was not evident in HBeAg-negative patients. In ADV therapy added to ongoing LAM treatment for LAM-resistant CHB, lower baseline HBV DNA and negative HBeAg contributed to a better antiviral effect. Addition of ADV should be done promptly before marked increase in HBV DNA, especially in CHB patients showing LAM resistance positive for HBeAg.Journal of Gastroenterology 05/2009; 44(6):601-7. · 3.79 Impact Factor