Endothelial function in children and adolescents with mucopolysaccharidosis.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Although coronary artery pathology is a prominent feature of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS), it may be underestimated by coronary angiography because of its diffuse nature. It is also generally assumed that cardiovascular risk is increased in MPS and reduced following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), but this has never been formally evaluated. Non-invasive methods of assessing vascular endothelial function may provide a measure of cardiovascular risk in MPS. We evaluated endothelial function, using digital reactive hyperemia, in youth with MPS and in healthy controls. METHODS: Digital reactive hyperemic index (RHI) was measured in 12 children and adolescents (age 10.3 ± 3.9 years old; 11 boys) with treated MPS and nine age- and gender-matched (11.4 ± 4.0; 8 boys) healthy controls. An independent t-test was used to compare RHI between individuals with MPS and controls. RESULTS: Children and adolescents with MPS (MPS type II: N = 5; type I: N = 4; type VI: N = 3) whether treated by HSCT (N = 4) or ERT (N = 8) had significantly lower RHI compared to controls (MPS 1.22 ± 0.19 vs. controls 1.46 ± 0.32, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These preliminary findings suggest that children and adolescents with treated MPS have significantly poorer endothelial function when compared to healthy controls. Further investigation into the utility of endothelial function for risk stratification and the long term implications of reduced endothelial function in MPS is warranted.
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ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular lesions, including coronary artery stenosis, are frequently associated and can cause sudden death in patients with genetic defects of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) metabolism. Early diagnosis of coronary artery lesions is difficult, although potentially lifesaving. Histopathological similarities between atherosclerotic changes in adults and in patients with genetic GAG metabolism defects have been known. Atherosclerosis is the result of a complex process involving metabolism of GAGs and proteoglycans preceded by endothelial dysfunction as a key event. Decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is considered the hallmark of endothelial dysfunction. Reduced NO synthase (NOS) has been reported in atherosclerotic arteries. Impairment in reactive hyperemia-digital peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT) with EndoPAT has been validated to correlate coronary microvascular function in patients with atherosclerosis. RH-PAT is thought to reflect endothelial NO production. Immunohistological staining of endothelial NOS was performed in the stenotic lesions in the coronary artery of a 3-year-old patient with Mucopolysaccharidosis-I, showing decreased activities. This prompted a study to measure endothelial function in patients with GAG metabolism defects for early diagnosis of endothelial dysfunction in the coronary arteries as an early sign of coronary artery changes. Evaluation by RH-PAT in 30 patients with variable genetic defects in GAG metabolism revealed significantly decreased Reactive Hyperemia Indexes compared with 12 controls. Evaluation of endothelial function with RH-PAT in patients with GAG metabolism defects may detect coronary artery lesions that can be underdiagnosed by the other measures such as coronary angiography. Use of this method may prove vital in the management of patients with GAG metabolism defects.Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 07/2013; · 4.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Recent studies have indicated that a proportion of patients with renal failure, left ventricular hypertrophy, or cryptogenic stroke have sequence variants in their aGal A gene (Fabry disease), which has resulted in an increase in diagnostic activities for this disorder. The diagnostic process for lysosomal storage disorders may result in findings of unknown clinical significance. Here we report such an unexpected outcome. Case: A 32-year-old male presented at the emergency department because of a transient ischemic attack. Extensive investigations revealed no cause and an initial diagnosis of cryptogenic stroke was made. Subsequently, aGal A activity was measured in a bloodspot and was shown to be normal, but the activity of alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA), used as reference enzyme, was unexpectedly low: 0.5 umol/L (ref = 1.7-14.3). A diagnosis of IDUA deficiency, mucopolysaccharidosis type 1S or Scheie disease was considered. IDUA gene analysis revealed two homozygous sequence alterations: a silent sequence change (979C > T) in exon 7 (N297N) and an unknown missense mutation 875A > T (R263W). Physical examination was completely normal, without clinical signs of mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I). Leukocyte IDUA activity was also low: 2.1 nmol/mg prot/h (ref = 14-40 nmol prot/h), but higher than the patient range of <0.1 nmol/mg prot/h. Urinary glycosaminoglycan levels were normal both quantitatively and qualitatively. It was concluded that there was low IDUA activity without clinical symptoms and the diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis I was discarded. Conclusion: The diagnostic process for lysosomal storage disorders may result in biochemical abnormalities of unknown clinical significance. Early evaluation by a specialist in inborn errors of metabolism may help to avoid anxiety in patients and unnecessary additional analyses.JIMD reports. 01/2013; 9:117-20.
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ABSTRACT: Background Treatments for mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) have increased longevity, but coronary artery disease (CAD) and cardiovascular complications cause mortality in a high percentage of patients. Non-invasive measures of sub-clinical atherosclerosis, such as carotid intima–media thickness (cIMT) and arterial stiffness, may be useful for prediction of CAD outcomes in MPS patients. Objectives The aim of the study was to determine if cIMT and arterial stiffness are abnormal in MPS I and II patients compared to healthy controls. Methods MPS patients underwent carotid artery ultrasonography, and electronic wall-tracking software was used to measure cIMT, carotid artery cross-sectional compliance (cCSC), cross-sectional distensibility (cCSD), and incremental elastic modulus (cIEM). Control data from healthy subjects were obtained from a different study that utilized identical testing within the same laboratory. Results A total of 406 healthy controls and 25 MPS patients (16 MPS I, 9 MPS II) were studied. All MPS patients had or were receiving treatment: 15 patients (6 MPS I, 9 MPS II) were receiving enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), 9 patients (all MPS I) had received hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), and 1 patient with MPS I had received HSCT and was receiving enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). MPS patients had significantly higher mean (± SD) cIMT (0.56 ± 0.05 mm) compared to controls (0.44 ± 0.04 mm; adjusted p < 0.001). MPS patients also had increased stiffness compared to controls, showing significantly lower cCSC (0.14 ± 0.09 mm2/mm Hg versus 0.16 ± 0.05 mm2/mm Hg; adjusted p = 0.019), and higher cIEM (1362 ± 877 mm Hg versus 942 ± 396 mm Hg; adjusted p < 0.001). cCSD in MPS patients was lower than that of controls (29.7 ± 16.4% versus 32.0 ± 8.2%) but was not statistically significant; p = 0.12. Among MPS patients, cCSD showed a significant association with cIMT (p = 0.047), while the association between cIEM and cIMT approached significance (p = 0.077). No significant differences were observed in cIMT, cCSD, cCSC, and cIEM between MPS I and MPS II patients. Conclusions Despite treatment, MPS patients had higher cIMT compared to healthy controls, indicating this marker of sub-clinical atherosclerosis may be a useful predictor of CAD outcomes. The association of arterial stiffness measures with cIMT suggests that mechanical and structural changes may occur in concert among MPS patients. Although yet to be confirmed, increased cIMT and arterial stiffness in MPS I and II patients may be a consequence of inflammatory signaling pathways triggered by heparan or dermatan sulfate-derived oligosaccharides. Prospective, longitudinal studies will need to be performed in order to evaluate the usefulness of these carotid measurements as predictors of adverse CAD outcomes in MPS patients.Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 01/2013; · 2.83 Impact Factor