Article

Children's antisocial behavior, mental health, drug use, and educational performance after parental incarceration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England.
Psychological Bulletin (Impact Factor: 15.58). 03/2012; 138(2):175-210. DOI:10.1037/a0026407
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Unprecedented numbers of children experience parental incarceration worldwide. Families and children of prisoners can experience multiple difficulties after parental incarceration, including traumatic separation, loneliness, stigma, confused explanations to children, unstable childcare arrangements, strained parenting, reduced income, and home, school, and neighborhood moves. Children of incarcerated parents often have multiple, stressful life events before parental incarceration. Theoretically, children with incarcerated parents may be at risk for a range of adverse behavioral outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize empirical evidence on associations between parental incarceration and children's later antisocial behavior, mental health problems, drug use, and educational performance. Results from 40 studies (including 7,374 children with incarcerated parents and 37,325 comparison children in 50 samples) were pooled in a meta-analysis. The most rigorous studies showed that parental incarceration is associated with higher risk for children's antisocial behavior, but not for mental health problems, drug use, or poor educational performance. Studies that controlled for parental criminality or children's antisocial behavior before parental incarceration had a pooled effect size of OR = 1.4 (p < .01), corresponding to about 10% increased risk for antisocial behavior among children with incarcerated parents, compared with peers. Effect sizes did not decrease with number of covariates controlled. However, the methodological quality of many studies was poor. More rigorous tests of the causal effects of parental incarceration are needed, using randomized designs and prospective longitudinal studies. Criminal justice reforms and national support systems might be needed to prevent harmful consequences of parental incarceration for children.

0 0
 · 
2 Bookmarks
 · 
180 Views
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parental incarceration is now prevalent in community samples (e.g., with 11% of children reporting paternal imprisonment and 3% reporting maternal imprisonment in a national sample), pointing to a potentially important childhood trauma that should be included in work on contemporary childhood stressors in this era of mass incarceration. This paper investigates the influences of maternal and paternal imprisonment on changes in young adult mental health using a nationally representative sample. We assess four perspectives-gendered loss, same-sex role model, intergenerational stress, and maternal salience - on the joint influences of maternal and paternal incarceration within the broader stress process paradigm. The results generalize support for a gendered loss perspective developed in work on parental death and an early small study of parental incarceration. This pattern reveals maternal incarceration increases depressive symptoms while paternal incarceration increases substance role problems. Chronicity of parental imprisonment and its timing are also influential. Analyses further specify a vulnerability of male and minority young adults to high levels of mental health problems following maternal and paternal incarceration in adolescence.
    Social Science Research 05/2013; 42(3):650-69. · 1.27 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This meta-analysis synthesized the findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of motivational interviewing (MI) for health behavior outcomes within primary care populations. Published and unpublished RCTs were identified using databases and online listservs. Studies were synthesized by outcome subgroup and meta-regression analyses were conducted to determine potential moderators accounting for heterogeneity within samples. Mean effect sizes ranged from .07 to .47; significant effect sizes were found for the adherence subgroup of studies (p = .04) and all outcomes combined (p = .02). Professional credentials of intervention deliverer were found to significantly moderate the association between MI and effect size in substance use subgroup (p = .0005) and all outcomes combined (p = .004). Mean effect sizes were largest in outcomes related to weight loss, blood pressure, and substance use. MI appears to be useful in clinical settings and as few as 1 MI session may be effective in enhancing readiness to change and action directed towards reaching health behavior-change goals.
    Journal of Behavioral Medicine 08/2013; · 3.10 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parental incarceration can be devastating for families. Children may experience difficulties, and the stress on caregivers who take on unexpected childrearing is high. We implemented and evaluated a family-level intervention with caregivers and children experiencing parental (typically maternal) incarceration, in a community setting. We partnered with a community-based organization serving families with an incarcerated parent to conduct a pilot trial of the Strengthening Families Program (SFP). Process evaluation indicated high implementation fidelity, satisfaction, engagement, and attendance. Outcome evaluation results indicated positive changes in family-level functioning, caregivers' positive parenting, and caregiver depression symptoms from pre- to post-intervention, with some changes retained at follow-up 4 months later. Implications for preventive interventions with children of incarcerated parents, and their caregivers, are discussed.
    Family Relations 10/2013; 62(4). · 0.68 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
4 Downloads
Available from