Geographical information systems: applications and limitations in oncology research.
ABSTRACT The relationship between geography and cancer incidence and treatment is a critical area of health outcomes research. Geographical information systems (GIS) are software packages designed to store and analyze data related to geographic locations. Although more commonly associated with the social sciences and urban planning, the use of GIS software in medical research has been increasing. Moreover, since the 1999 establishment of the Geographical Informational Systems Special Interest Group (GISSIG) at the National Cancer Institute, oncology has been at the forefront of GIS-related health research. In this review, we discuss the potential applications and limitations of GIS software in oncology research. Our aims are to help clinicians and policy makers interpret studies generated using GIS, and to help clinical investigators implement GIS in future research.
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ABSTRACT: Cities are constantly changing and authorities face immense challenges in obtaining accurate and timely data to effectively manage urban areas. This is particularly problematic in the developing world where municipal records are often unavailable or not updated. Spaceborne earth observation (EO) has great potential for providing up-to-date spatial information about urban areas. This article reviews the application of EO for supporting urban planning. In particular, the article overviews case studies where EO was used to derive products and indicators required by urban planners. The review concludes that EO has sufficiently matured in recent years but that a shift from the current focus on purely science-driven EO applications to the provision of useful information for day-to-day decision-making and urban sustainability monitoring is clearly needed.Journal of Planning Literature 04/2014; 30(2). DOI:10.1177/0885412214557817 · 1.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To facilitate analysis, interpreting and sharing cancer data and investigation spatial and geographical aspect of cancers in Isfahan province, cancer cases distribution was displayed using geographic information systems (GIS). About 118,000 cancer data, which were confirmed in national cancer registration unit were extracted. Age-specific incidence rate and age standardized rate (ASR) of cancer cases from 2006 to 2010 was calculated for Isfahan province and its different districts. Distribution of ASR was determined according to sex and age groups. Spatial maps were drawn with the help of Arc GIS version 10 (ESRI, Redland, CA, USA) software in choropleth based maps. The data are classified in GIS environment by means of quantile method. Data were described with the help of maps spatially. Age standardized rate of cancers was higher in men than in women (134.58 vs. 115.4). The highest ASR was reported in the Isfahan (ASR: 133) and lowest in the Chadegan counties (ASR: 28). Different geographical distribution patterns of cancers were seen in district level. Cancer incidence was higher in the Isfahan, Lenjan, Fereidon Shahr and Falavarjan districts (134.3, 117.2, 113.5 and 111.1 respectively) among men and in Isfahan, Shahin Shahr, Lenjan and Najafabad districts (122.8, 102.3, 94 and 93 respectively) among women. The incidence rates of most cancers were lowest in the North East region of the province compared to the rest of the region. Using GIS for visual displaying of cancers facilitated communication with the policymakers and community. This study provided hypotheses about differences in the incidence of cancer in Isfahan districts. Higher age-specific incidence rate in the Isfahan city is probably a reflection of problems in addressing the patients in cancer registration. Complementary studies are needed to evaluate lower ASR in the North East regions of the province.International journal of preventive medicine 01/2015; 6(1):29. DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.154383
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ABSTRACT: This paper provides an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and how they can be used. It reviews the current state of GIS use in health care before identifying the barriers to more pervasive use of GIS in health. Finally, it makes recommendations for the direction of health GIS research over the next decade and concludes with a call to action to health informatics researchers to stop ignoring a tool and methodology that has such immense potential for improving the health of our communities.06/2012; 18(2):88-96. DOI:10.4258/hir.2012.18.2.88