Acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) are rare tumours of the exocrine pancreas accounting for about 1-2% of all pancreatic neoplasms in adults. It is therefore difficult to come across a large number of ACC cases in a single medical institution, and only a few serial studies have been published. Since ACCs present a wide variety of morphological patterns, immunohistochemical analysis is useful. In this study, the authors established a novel monoclonal antibody 2P-1-2-1 by means of a subtractive immunisation method.
Immunohistochemical staining was performed using 50 primary pancreatic tumors, including 7 ACCs, 7 neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), 5 solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs), and 31 ductal carcinomas and organs other than the pancreas.
Non-neoplastic acinar cells were stained diffusely, but epithelial cells of the pancreatic duct and the islets of Langerhans were not stained. In pancreatic tumours, all the seven ACCs were diffusely positive for the 2P-1-2-1 antibody. However, no positive staining was found in other pancreatic tumours including NETs, SPNs and ductal adenocarcinomas. The sensitivity and specificity of the 2P-1-2-1 antibody for ACCs were both 100%. In other organs studied, positive staining was observed only in the ectopic pancreas.
It was shown that the 2P-1-2-1 antibody specifically stained the pancreatic acinar cells and tumours of acinar cell origin, such as ACCs. Although it remains unclear at this time to which proteins the monoclonal antibody 2P-1-2-1 is directed, it is suggested to be useful for the pathological diagnosis of ACCs and for the exclusion of other pancreatic tumours.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the last decade an increasing number of studies have focused on the ability of G protein-coupled receptors to form heteromers and explored how receptor heteromerization modulates the binding, signaling and trafficking properties of individual receptors. Most of these studies were carried out in heterologous cells expressing epitope tagged receptors. Very little information is available about the in vivo physiological role of G protein-coupled receptor heteromers due to a lack of tools to detect their presence in endogenous tissue. Recent advances such as the generation of mouse models expressing fluorescently labeled receptors, of TAT based peptides that can disrupt a given heteromer pair, or of heteromer-selective antibodies that recognize the heteromer in endogenous tissue have begun to elucidate the physiological and pathological roles of receptor heteromers. In this review we have focused on heteromer-selective antibodies and describe how a subtractive immunization strategy can be successfully used to generate antibodies that selectively recognize a desired heteromer pair. We also describe the uses of these antibodies to detect the presence of heteromers, to study their properties in endogenous tissues, and to monitor changes in heteromer levels under pathological conditions. Together, these findings suggest that G protein-coupled receptor heteromers represent unique targets for the development of drugs with reduced side-effects.
Frontiers in Pharmacology 12/2014; 5:268. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2014.00268 · 3.80 Impact Factor
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