Human histone acetyltransferase 1 protein preferentially acetylates H4 histone molecules in H3.1-H4 over H3.3-H4.
ABSTRACT In mammalian cells, canonical histone H3 (H3.1) and H3 variant (H3.3) differ by five amino acids and are assembled, along with histone H4, into nucleosomes via distinct nucleosome assembly pathways. H3.1-H4 molecules are assembled by histone chaperone CAF-1 in a replication-coupled process, whereas H3.3-H4 are assembled via HIRA in a replication-independent pathway. Newly synthesized histone H4 is acetylated at lysine 5 and 12 (H4K5,12) by histone acetyltransferase 1 (HAT1). However, it remains unclear whether HAT1 and H4K5,12ac differentially regulate these two nucleosome assembly processes. Here, we show that HAT1 binds and acetylates H4 in H3.1-H4 molecules preferentially over H4 in H3.3-H4. Depletion of Hat1, the catalytic subunit of HAT1 complex, results in reduced H3.1 occupancy at H3.1-enriched genes and reduced association of Importin 4 with H3.1, but not H3.3. Finally, depletion of Hat1 or CAF-1p150 leads to changes in expression of a H3.1-enriched gene. These results indicate that HAT1 differentially impacts nucleosome assembly of H3.1-H4 and H3.3-H4.
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ABSTRACT: p55 is a common component of many chromatin-modifying complexes and has been shown to bind to histones. Here, we present a crystal structure of Drosophila p55 bound to a histone H4 peptide. p55, a predicted WD40 repeat protein, recognizes the first helix of histone H4 via a binding pocket located on the side of a beta-propeller structure. The pocket cannot accommodate the histone fold of H4, which must be altered to allow p55 binding. Reconstitution experiments show that the binding pocket is important to the function of p55-containing complexes. These data demonstrate that WD40 repeat proteins use various surfaces to direct the modification of histones.Genes & Development 06/2008; 22(10):1313-8. · 12.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purification and characterization of a replication-dependent chromatin assembly factor (CAF-I) from the nuclei of human cells is described. CAF-I is a multisubunit protein that, when added to a crude cytosol replication extract, promotes chromatin assembly on replicating SV40 DNA. Chromatin assembly by CAF-I requires and is coupled with DNA replication. The minichromosomes assembled de novo by CAF-I consist of correctly spaced nucleosomes containing the four core histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4, which are supplied in a soluble form by the cytosol replication extract. Thus, by several criteria, the CAF-I-dependent chromatin assembly reaction described herein reflects the process of chromatin formation during DNA replication in vivo.Cell 08/1989; 58(1):15-25. · 31.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Changes in chromatin composition accompany cellular differentiation in eukaryotes. Although bulk chromatin is duplicated during DNA replication, replication-independent (RI) nucleosome replacement occurs in transcriptionally active chromatin and during specific developmental transitions where the genome is repackaged. In most animals, replacement uses the conserved H3.3 histone variant, but the functions of this variant have not been defined. Using mutations for the two H3.3 genes in Drosophila, we identify widespread transcriptional defects in H3.3-deficient animals. We show that mutant animals compensate for the lack of H3.3 in two ways: they upregulate the expression of the major histone H3 genes, and they maintain chromatin structure by using H3 protein for RI nucleosome replacement at active genes. Rescue experiments show that increased expression of H3 is sufficient to relieve transcriptional defects. In contrast, H3.3 is essential for male fertility, and germline cells specifically require the histone variant. Defects without H3.3 first occur around meiosis, resulting in a failure to condense, segregate, and reorganize chromatin. Rescue experiments with mutated transgenes demonstrate that H3.3-specific residues involved in RI nucleosome assembly-but not major histone modification sites-are required for male fertility. Our results imply that the H3.3 variant plays an essential role in chromatin transitions in the male germline.Current biology: CB 09/2009; 19(21):1816-20. · 10.99 Impact Factor