Cost-effectiveness of preoperative nasal mupirocin treatment in preventing surgical site infection in patients undergoing total hip and knee arthroplasty: a cost-effectiveness analysis.
ABSTRACT To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis to evaluate preoperative use of mupirocin in patients with total joint arthroplasty (TJA).
Simple decision tree model.
Outpatient TJA clinical setting.
Hypothetical cohort of patients with TJA.
A simple decision tree model compared 3 strategies in a hypothetical cohort of patients with TJA: (1) obtaining preoperative screening cultures for all patients, followed by administration of mupirocin to patients with cultures positive for Staphylococcus aureus; (2) providing empirical preoperative treatment with mupirocin for all patients without screening; and (3) providing no preoperative treatment or screening. We assessed the costs and benefits over a 1-year period. Data inputs were obtained from a literature review and from our institution's internal data. Utilities were measured in quality-adjusted life-years, and costs were measured in 2005 US dollars.
Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio.
The treat-all and screen-and-treat strategies both had lower costs and greater benefits, compared with the no-treatment strategy. Sensitivity analysis revealed that this result is stable even if the cost of mupirocin was over $100 and the cost of SSI ranged between $26,000 and $250,000. Treating all patients remains the best strategy when the prevalence of S. aureus carriers and surgical site infection is varied across plausible values as well as when the prevalence of mupirocin-resistant strains is high.
Empirical treatment with mupirocin ointment or use of a screen-and-treat strategy before TJA is performed is a simple, safe, and cost-effective intervention that can reduce the risk of SSI. S. aureus decolonization with nasal mupirocin for patients undergoing TJA should be considered.
Level II, economic and decision analysis.
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ABSTRACT: The current risk of infection in contemporary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) as well as the relative importance of risk factors remains under debate as a result of the rarity of the complication and temporal changes in the treatment and prevention of infection. We therefore determined infection incidence and risk factors after TKA in the Medicare population. The Medicare 5% national sample administrative data set was used to identify and longitudinally follow patients undergoing TKA for deep infections and revision surgery between 1997 and 2006. Cox regression was used to evaluate patient and hospital characteristics. In 69,663 patients undergoing elective TKA, 1400 TKA infections were identified. Infection incidence within 2 years was 1.55%. The incidence between 2 and up to 10 years was 0.46%. Women had a lower risk of infection than men. Comorbidities also increased TKA infection risk. Patients receiving public assistance for Medicare premiums were at increased risk for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). Hospital factors did not predict an increased risk of infection. PJI occurs at a relatively high rate in Medicare patients with the greatest risk of PJI within the first 2 years after surgery; however, approximately one-fourth of all PJIs occur after 2 years. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 09/2009; 468(1):52-6. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus has long been recognized as an important pathogen in human disease. Due to an increasing number of infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains, therapy has become problematic. Therefore, prevention of staphylococcal infections has become more important. Carriage of S. aureus appears to play a key role in the epidemiology and pathogenesis of infection. The ecological niches of S. aureus are the anterior nares. In healthy subjects, over time, three patterns of carriage can be distinguished: about 20% of people are persistent carriers, 60% are intermittent carriers, and approximately 20% almost never carry S. aureus. The molecular basis of the carrier state remains to be elucidated. In patients who repeatedly puncture the skin (e.g., hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis [CAPD] patients and intravenous drug addicts) and patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, increased carriage rates are found. Carriage has been identified as an important risk factor for infection in patients undergoing surgery, those on hemodialysis or CAPD, those with HIV infection and AIDS, those with intravascular devices, and those colonized with MRSA. Elimination of carriage has been found to reduce the infection rates in surgical patients and those on hemodialysis and CAPD. Elimination of carriage appears to be an attractive preventive strategy in patients at risk. Further studies are needed to optimize this strategy and to define the groups at risk.Clinical Microbiology Reviews 08/1997; 10(3):505-20. · 17.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Antibiotic-impregnated bone cement is infrequently used in the United States for primary total hip arthroplasty because of concerns about cost, performance, and the possible development of antibiotic resistance and because it has been approved only for use in revision arthroplasty after infection. The purpose of this study was to model the use of antibiotic-impregnated bone cement in primary total hip arthroplasty for the treatment of osteoarthritis to determine whether use of the cement is cost-effective when compared with the use of cement without antibiotics. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of each strategy, we used a Markov decision model to tabulate costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) accumulated by each patient. Rates of revision due to infection and aseptic loosening were estimated from data in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register and were used to determine the probability of undergoing a revision arthroplasty because of either infection or aseptic loosening. The primary outcome measure was either all revisions or revision due to infection. Perioperative mortality rates, utilities, and disutilities were estimated from data in the arthroplasty literature. Costs for primary arthroplasty were estimated from data on in-hospital resource use in the literature. The additional cost of using antibiotic-impregnated bone cement ($600) was then added to the average cost of the initial procedure ($21,654). When all revisions were considered to be the primary outcome measure, the use of antibiotic-impregnated bone cement was found to result in a decrease in overall cost of $200 per patient. When revision due to infection was considered to be the primary outcome measure, the use of the cement was found to have an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $37,355 per QALY compared with cement without antibiotics; this cost-effectiveness compares favorably with that of accepted medical procedures. When only revision due to infection was considered, it was found that the additional cost of the antibiotic-impregnated bone cement would need to exceed $650 or the average patient age would need to be greater than seventy-one years before its cost would exceed $50,000 per QALY gained. When revision due to either infection or aseptic loosening is considered to be the primary outcome, the use of antibiotic-impregnated bone cement results in an overall cost decrease. When only revision due to infection is considered, the model is strongly influenced by the cost of the cement and the average age of the patients. With few patients less than seventy years of age undergoing total hip arthroplasty with cement in the United States, the use of antibiotic-impregnated bone cement in primary total hip arthroplasty may be of limited value unless its cost is substantially reduced.The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 04/2009; 91(3):634-41. · 3.23 Impact Factor