Article

Pericentromeric effects shape the patterns of divergence, retention, and expression of duplicated genes in the paleopolyploid soybean.

Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.
The Plant Cell (Impact Factor: 9.58). 02/2012; 24(1):21-32. DOI: 10.1105/tpc.111.092759
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The evolutionary forces that govern the divergence and retention of duplicated genes in polyploids are poorly understood. In this study, we first investigated the rates of nonsynonymous substitution (Ka) and the rates of synonymous substitution (Ks) for a nearly complete set of genes in the paleopolyploid soybean (Glycine max) by comparing the orthologs between soybean and its progenitor species Glycine soja and then compared the patterns of gene divergence and expression between pericentromeric regions and chromosomal arms in different gene categories. Our results reveal strong associations between duplication status and Ka and gene expression levels and overall low Ks and low levels of gene expression in pericentromeric regions. It is theorized that deleterious mutations can easily accumulate in recombination-suppressed regions, because of Hill-Robertson effects. Intriguingly, the genes in pericentromeric regions-the cold spots for meiotic recombination in soybean-showed significantly lower Ka and higher levels of expression than their homoeologs in chromosomal arms. This asymmetric evolution of two members of individual whole genome duplication (WGD)-derived gene pairs, echoing the biased accumulation of singletons in pericentromeric regions, suggests that distinct genomic features between the two distinct chromatin types are important determinants shaping the patterns of divergence and retention of WGD-derived genes.

2 Bookmarks
 · 
259 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BackgroundGRAS proteins belong to a plant transcription factor family that is involved with multifarious roles in plants. Although previous studies of this protein family have been reported for Arabidopsis, rice, Chinese cabbage and other species, investigation of expansion patterns and evolutionary rate on the basis of comparative genomics in different species remains inadequate.ResultsA total of 289 GRAS genes were identified in Arabidopsis, B. distachyon, rice, soybean, S. moellendorffii, and P. patens and were grouped into seven subfamilies, supported by the similarity of their exon¿intron patterns and structural motifs. All of tandem duplicated genes were found in group II except one cluster of rice, indicating that tandem duplication greatly promoted the expansion of group II. Furthermore, segment duplications were mainly found in the soybean genome, whereas no single expansion pattern dominated in other plant species indicating that GRAS genes from these five species might be subject to a more complex evolutionary mechanism. Interestingly, branch-site model analyses of positive selection showed that a number of sites were positively selected under foreground branches I and V. These results strongly indicated that these groups were experiencing higher positive selection pressure. Meanwhile, the site-specific model revealed that the GRAS genes were under strong positive selection in P. patens. DIVERGE v2.0 was used to detect critical amino acid sites, and the results showed that the shifted evolutionary rate was mainly attributed to the functional divergence between the GRAS genes in the two groups. In addition, the results also demonstrated the expression divergence of the GRAS duplicated genes in the evolution. In short, the results above provide a solid foundation for further functional dissection of the GRAS gene superfamily.Conclusions In this work, differential expression, evolutionary rate, and expansion patterns of the GRAS gene family in the six species were predicted. Especially, tandem duplication events played an important role in expansion of group II. Together, these results contribute to further functional analysis and the molecular evolution of the GRAS gene superfamily.
    BMC Plant Biology 12/2014; 14(1):373. · 3.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The accumulation of over 30 years of basic research on the biology, genetic variation, and evolution of the wild perennial relatives of soybean (Glycine max) provides a foundation to improve cultivated soybean. The cultivated soybean and its wild progenitor, G. soja, have a center of origin in eastern Asia and are the only two species in the annual subgenus Soja. Systematic and evolutionary studies of the ca. 30 perennial species of subgenus Glycine, native to Australia, have benefited from the availability of the G. max genomic sequence. The perennial species harbor many traits of interest to soybean breeders, among them resistance to major soybean pathogens such as cyst nematode and leaf rust. New species in the Australian subgenus continue to be described, due to the collection of new material and to insights gleaned through systematic studies of accessions in germplasm collections. Ongoing studies in perennial species focus on genomic regions that contain genes for key traits relevant to soybean breeding. These comparisons also include the homoeologous regions that are the result of polyploidy in the common ancestor of all Glycine species. Subgenus Glycine includes a complex of recently formed allopolyploids that are the focus of studies aimed at elucidating genomic, transcriptomic, physiological, taxonomic, morphological, developmental, and ecological processes related to polyploid evolution. Here we review what has been learned over the past 30 years and outline ongoing work on photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and floral biology, much of it drawing on new technologies and resources.
    American Journal of Botany 10/2014; 101(10):1651-65. · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Members of the plant-specific IQ67-domain (IQD) protein family are involved in plant development and the basal defense response. Although systematic characterization of this family has been carried out in Arabidopsis, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Brachypodium distachyon and rice (Oryza sativa), systematic analysis and expression profiling of this gene family in soybean (Glycine max) have not previously been reported. In this study, we identified and structurally characterized IQD genes in the soybean genome. A complete set of 67 soybean IQD genes (GmIQD1-67) was identified using Blast search tools, and the genes were clustered into four subfamilies (IQD I-IV) based on phylogeny. These soybean IQD genes are distributed unevenly across all 20 chromosomes, with 30 segmental duplication events, suggesting that segmental duplication has played a major role in the expansion of the soybean IQD gene family. Analysis of the Ka/Ks ratios showed that the duplicated genes of the GmIQD family primarily underwent purifying selection. Microsynteny was detected in most pairs: genes in clade 1-3 might be present in genome regions that were inverted, expanded or contracted after the divergence; most gene pairs in clade 4 showed high conservation with little rearrangement among these gene-residing regions. Of the soybean IQD genes examined, six were most highly expressed in young leaves, six in flowers, one in roots and two in nodules. Our qRT-PCR analysis of 24 soybean IQD III genes confirmed that these genes are regulated by MeJA stress. Our findings present a comprehensive overview of the soybean IQD gene family and provide insights into the evolution of this family. In addition, this work lays a solid foundation for further experiments aimed at determining the biological functions of soybean IQD genes in growth and development.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e110896. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
144 Downloads
Available from
May 20, 2014