Identification of natural products that have antitumor activity is invaluable to the chemoprevention and therapy of cancer. The embryos of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) seeds are consumed in beverage in some parts of the world for their presumed health-benefiting effects. In this report we studied the effects of neferine, a major alkaloid component in lotus embryos, on human osteosarcoma cells and the underlying mechanisms. We found that neferine possessed a potent growth-inhibitory effect on human osteosarcoma cells, but not on non-neoplastic human osteoblast cells. The inhibitory effect of neferine on human osteosarcoma cells was largely attributed to cell cycle arrest at G1. The induction of G1 arrest was p21(WAF1/CIP1)-dependent, but was independent of p53 or RB (retinoblastoma-associated protein). The up-regulation of p21 by neferine was due to an increase in the half-life of p21 protein. We examined four kinases that are known to affect the stabilization of p21, and found that p38 MAPK and JNK were activated by neferine. However, only SB203580 (an inhibitor of p38), but not SP600125 (the inhibitor of JNK), can attenuate the up-regulation of p21 in response to neferine. Furthermore, the p21-stabilizing effect of neferine was abolished when p38 was silenced by RNA interference. Finally, we showed that neferine treatment led to an increased phosphorylation of p21 at Ser130 that was dependent on p38. Our results for the first time showed a direct antitumor effect of neferine, suggesting that consumption of neferine may have cancer-preventive and cancer-therapeutic benefit.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance:
Thai medicine has a long tradition of tonifying medicinal plants. In the present investigation, we studied the flower extracts of Jasminum sambac, Mammea siamensis, Mesua ferrea, Michelia alba, Mimusops elengi, and Nelumbo nucifera and speculated that these plants might influence metabolism and substance flow in the body.
Materials and methods:
Isolation of porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (PBCECs) as well as multidrug-resistance CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cells, MDA-M;B-231 breast cancer, U-251 brain tumor, and HCT-116 colon cancer cells were used. The calcein-acetoxymethylester (AM) assay was used to measure inhibition of P-glycoprotein transport. XTT and resazurin assays served for measuring cytotoxicity.
The extracts revealed cytotoxicity towards CCRF-CEM leukemia cells to a different extent. The strongest growth inhibition was found for the n-hexane extracts of Mammea siamensis and Mesua ferrea, and the dichloromethane extracts of Mesua ferrea and Michelia alba. The flower extracts also inhibited P-glycoprotein function in porcine brain capillary endothelial cells and CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cells, indicating modulation of the blood-brain barrier and multidrug resistance of tumors. Bioactivity-guided isolation of coumarins from Mammea siamensis flowers revealed considerable cytotoxicity of mammea A/AA, deacetylmammea E/BA and deacetylmammea E/BB towards human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer, U-251 brain tumor, HCT-116 colon cancer, and CCRF-CEM leukemia cells.
The plants analyzed may be valuable in developing novel treatment strategies to overcome the blood-brain barrier and multidrug-resistance in tumor cells mediated by P-glycoprotein.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2014.06.001 · 3.00 Impact Factor
"Recently, we have reported that neferine could induce ROS dependent mitochondrial mediated apoptosis in liver and lung cancer cells (Poornima et al., 2013a, 2013b). Zhang et al. (2012) showed that neferine could inhibit the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells. It could reverse the multidrug resistance in MCF-7/ ADM, HepG2 (Cheng et al., 2008) and human gastric carcinoma cells (Cao et al., 2004). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Doxorubicin (DOX) is the best anticancer agent that has ever been used, but acquired tumor resistance and dose limiting toxicity are major road blocks. Concomitant use of natural compounds is a promising strategy to overcome this problem. Neferine, a proven anticancer-agent is found in green embryos of lotus seed. The study demonstrates that neferine acts as an effective enhancer of DOX-induced cell death in A549 cells through ROS mediated apoptosis with MAPK activation and inhibition of NF-κB nuclear translocation. Cotreatment of cells with neferine significantly enhanced intracellular DOX-accumulation. Neferine and DOX in combination also triggered oxidative stress through intracellular Ca2+ accumulation and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential in addition to significant loss of cellular antioxidant pool. The MAPK inhibitor effectively decreased the cell-death induced by neferine and DOX. Pretreatment of cells with glutathione reversed the apoptosis induced by the combined regimen and recovered the Bcl2/Bax ratio. Moreover, neferine treatment significantly increased the cell viability of DOX-treated cardiomyocytes indicating a possible protective role of neferine towards DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Taken together, our results suggest that a strategy of using neferine and DOX in combination could be helpful to increase the efficacy of DOX and to achieve anticancer synergism by curbing the toxicity.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 03/2014; 68. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2014.03.008 · 2.90 Impact Factor
"Previous studies have shown that neferine has a number of pharmacological actions and is useful in the treatment of high fevers and hyposomnia, arrhythmia , platelet aggregation, thrombosis, obesity, and in the inhibition of pulmonary fibrosis . In recent years, it has been reported that neferine inhibits the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells , hypertrophic scar fibroblasts , and osteosarcoma cells . A pharmacokinetic study showed that the distribution of neferine to the lung is the highest of all the tissues after an oral administration of 50 mg/kg of neferine to rats . "
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.