Ku80 functions as a tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma by inducing S-phase arrest through a p53-dependent pathway.
ABSTRACT Ku80 is a component of the protein complex called DNA-dependent protein kinase, which is involved in DNA double-strand break repair and multiple other functions. Previous studies revealed that Ku80 haplo-insufficient and poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-null transgenic mice developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at a high frequency. The role of Ku80 has never been investigated in human HCC. Ku80 expressions in HCC and adjacent liver tissue were investigated by using immunohistochemical staining and western blot. Ku80 was transfected into a Ku80-deficient HCC cell line SMMC7721 cells, and the growth features of the Ku80-expressing cells and vector-transfected cells were studied both in vitro and in vivo. Cell cycle analysis and RNA interference were employed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the growth regulation associated with Ku80 expression. Ku80 was found frequently downregulated in HCC compared with adjacent liver tissue. Ku80 downregulation was significantly correlated with elevated hepatitis B virus-DNA load and severity of liver cirrhosis. Overexpression of Ku80 in SMMC7721 cells significantly suppressed cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Ku80 overexpression caused S-phase cell cycle arrest and was associated with upregulation of p53 and p21(CIP1/WAF1), and the inhibition of p53 or p21(CIP1/WAF1) expression by RNA interference overcame the growth suppression and S-phase arrest in the Ku80-expressing cells. A novel mechanism was revealed that Ku80 functions as a tumor suppressor in HCC by inducing S-phase arrest through a p53-dependent pathway.
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ABSTRACT: The far-upstream element-binding protein-interacting repressor (FIR) is a c-myc transcriptional suppressor. FIR is alternatively spliced to lack the transcriptional repression domain within exon 2 (FIRΔexon2) in colorectal cancers. FIR and FIRΔexon2 form homo- or heterodimers that complex with SAP155. SAP155, a subunit of the essential splicing factor 3b subcomplex in the spliceosome, is required for proper P27Kip1 pre-mRNA splicing, and P27Kip1 arrests cells at G1. In contrast, FIR was co-immunoprecipitated with Ku86 and DNA-PKcs. siRNA against Ku86/Ku70 decreased FIR and P27Kip1 expression, whereas siRNA against FIR decreased Ku86/ XRCC5 and P27Kip1 expression. Thus the mechanical interaction of FIR/FIRΔexon2/ SAP155 bridges c-myc and P27Kip1 expression, potentially integrating cell-cycle progression and c-myc transcription in cell. Bleomycin is an anticancer agent that introduces DNA breaks. Because DNA breaks generate the recruitment of Ku86/Ku70 to bind to the broken DNA ends, the possible involvement of FIR and Ku86/Ku70 interaction in the bleomycin-induced DNA damage repair response was investigated in this study. First, bleomycin treatment reduced SAP155 expression and increased FIR and FIRΔexon2 mRNA expression as well as the ratio of FIRΔexon2:FIR in hepatoblastoma cells (HLE and HLF). Second, FIR or FIRΔexon2 adenovirus vectors (Ad-FIR or Ad-FIRΔexon2) increased Ku86/ Ku70 and P27Kip1 expression in vitro. Third, bleomycin decreased P27Kip1 protein expression, whereas increased P27Kip1 and γH2AX expression with Ad-FIRΔexon2. Together, the interaction of FIR/SAP155 modulates FIR splicing and involves in cellcycle control or cell fate via P27Kip1 and c-myc in bleomycin-induced DNA damage pathway. This novel function of FIR splicing will contribute to clinical studies of cancer management through elucidating the mechanical interaction of FIR/FIRΔexon2/ SAP155 as a potential target for cancer treatment.Oncotarget 12/2013; · 6.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Activation of hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) is commonly observed in chronic liver disease and Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a crucial role in the expansion of HPCs. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the liver, especially in HPCs, remain largely elusive. Here, we reported that ectopic expression of Smad6 suppressed the proliferation and self-renewal of WB-F344 cells, a HPC cell line. Mechanistically, we found that Smad6 inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling through promoting the interaction of C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) with β-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) complex to inhibit β-catenin mediated transcriptional activation in WB-F344 cells. We used siRNA targeting β-catenin to demonstrate that Wnt/β-catenin signaling was required for the proliferation and self-renewal of HPCs. Taken together, these results suggest that Smad6 is a regulatory molecule which regulates the proliferation, self-renewal and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in HPCs. J. Cell. Physiol. 229: 651-660, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Cellular Physiology 05/2014; 229(5):651-60. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been known as one of the most lethal human malignancies, due to the difficulty of early detection, chemoresistance, and radioresistance, and is characterized by active angiogenesis and metastasis, which account for rapid recurrence and poor survival. Its development has been closely associated with multiple risk factors, including hepatitis B and C virus infection, alcohol consumption, obesity, and diet contamination. Genetic alterations and genomic instability, probably resulted from unrepaired DNA lesions, are increasingly recognized as a common feature of human HCC. Dysregulation of DNA damage repair and signaling to cell cycle checkpoints, known as the DNA damage response (DDR), is associated with a predisposition to cancer and affects responses to DNA-damaging anticancer therapy. It has been demonstrated that various HCC-associated risk factors are able to promote DNA damages, formation of DNA adducts, and chromosomal aberrations. Hence, alterations in the DDR pathways may accumulate these lesions to trigger hepatocarcinogenesis and also to facilitate advanced HCC progression. This review collects some of the most known information about the link between HCC-associated risk factors and DDR pathways in HCC. Hopefully, the review will remind the researchers and clinicians of further characterizing and validating the roles of these DDR pathways in HCC.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:153867. · 2.88 Impact Factor