Whole genomic analysis reveals the porcine origin of human G9P rotavirus strains Mc323 and Mc345.
ABSTRACT The group A rotavirus (RVA) P is a rare P-genotype of the RVA VP4 gene, reported so far in humans and pigs. Whole genomic analyses of P strains are essential to study their origin and evolutionary patterns. To date, all the 11 genes of only two P strains, RVA/Human-wt/IND/RMC321/1990/G9P and RVA/Human-wt/IND/mani-97/2006/G9P, have been analyzed, providing evidence for their porcine origin. In the present study, the whole genomes of the first reported human P strains, RVA/Human-tc/THA/Mc323/1989/G9P and RVA/Human-tc/THA/Mc345/1989/G9P, were analyzed. Strains Mc323 and Mc345 exhibited a G9-P-I5-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1-E1-H1 genotype constellation. With the exception of the NSP5 gene, both the strains were closely related to each other. Most of the genes of Mc323 (VP2-4, VP6-7, NSP1-4 genes) and Mc345 (VP2-4, VP6-7 and NSP1-5 genes) appeared to be of porcine origin, whilst the exact origin of VP1 and NSP5 genes of Mc323 and VP1 gene of Mc345 could not be ascertained. Therefore, strains Mc323 and Mc345 were found to have a porcine RVA genetic backbone, and are likely of porcine origin. Taken together, our observations corroborated the hypothesis that P strains might be derived from porcine RVAs, providing important insights into the origin of P strains, and on interspecies transmission of RVAs.
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ABSTRACT: Rotaviruses, a major cause of gastroenteritis in children worldwide accounts for around 0.5 million deaths annually. Owing to their segmented genome and frequently evolving capability, these display a wide variation in their genotypes. In addition to commonly circulating genotypes (G1, G2, G3, G4, G9, P and P), a number of infrequent genotypes are being continuously reported to infect humans. These viral strains exhibit variation from one geographical setting to another in their distribution. Though the introduction of vaccines (RotaTeq and Rotarix) proved to be very effective in declining rotavirus associated morbidity and mortality, the number of infections remained same. Unusual genotypes significantly contribute to the rotavirus associated diarrhoeal burden, may reduce the efficacy of the vaccines in use and hence vaccinated individuals may not be benefited. Vaccine introduction may bring about a notable impact on the distribution and prevalence of these viruses due to selection pressure. Moreover, there is a sudden emergence of G2 and G3 in Brazil and United States, respectively, during the years 2006-2008 post-vaccination introduction; G9 and G12 became predominant during the years 1986 through 1998 before the vaccine introduction and now are commonly prevalent strains; and disparity in the predominance of strains after introduction of vaccines and their natural fluctuations poses a vital question on the impact of vaccines on rotavirus strain circulation. This interplay between vaccines and rotavirus strains is yet to be explored, but it certainly enforces the need to continuously monitor these changes in strains prevalence in a particular region. Furthermore, these fluctuations should be considered while administration or development of a vaccine, if rotavirus associated mortality is ever to be controlled.Vaccine 04/2014; · 3.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rotavirus strains with a rearranged 11th genome segment may show super-short RNA electropherotypes. Examples from human strains were limited to seven strains, 69M, 57M, B37, Mc345, AU19, B4106 and BE2001, which have a variety of G and P genotypes. AU19 is a rare G1P human rotavirus strain detected in a Japanese infant with severe acute gastroenteritis. This study was undertaken to better understand the origin of AU19 by determining the genotype constellation of AU19. Upon nearly-full genome sequencing, AU19 had a G1- P- I5- R1- C1- M1- A8- N1- T1- E1- H2 genotype constellation. Possession of I5 and A8 genotypes is indicative of its porcine rotavirus origin, whereas possession of H2 genotype is indicative of its DS-1 like human rotavirus origin. At the phylogenetic lineage level for the genome segments that share the genotype between porcine and human rotaviruses, the VP1-4, VP7, NSP3-4 genes were most closely related to those of porcine rotaviruses, but the origin of the NSP2 gene was inconclusive. As to the NSP5 gene, the lineage containing AU19 and the other three super-short human strains, 69M, 57M and B37, carrying the H2 genotype (H2b) clustered with the lineage to which DS-1- like short strains belonged (H2a) albeit with an insignificant bootstrap support. Taken all these observations together, AU19 was likely to emerge as a consequence of interspecies transmission of a porcine rotavirus to a child coupled with the acquisition of a rare H2b genotype by genetic reassortment probably from a co-circulating human strain. The addition of the AU19 NSP5 sequence to much homogeneous H2b genotypes shared by previous super-short rotavirus strains made the genetic diversity of H2b genotypes as diverse as that of the H2a genotype, lending support to the hypothesis that super-short strains carrying H2b genotype have long been circulating unnoticed in the human population.Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 12/2013; · 3.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Group A rotaviruses (RVA) cause acute dehydrating diarrhea in young of man and many animal species, including pigs. Swine RVA has an important economic impact on the farming industry, and pigs represent a potential reservoir for zoonotic transmission of RVA to humans. To investigate the genetic diversity of porcine RVA strains in Italy and identify their possible zoonotic characteristics, 25 RVA-positive feces were collected from diarrheic pigs in Northern Italy, in 2009-2010; all viral strains were characterized by G and P genotyping RT-PCR. Three samples were selected for full genome sequencing. Sequencing of the NSP3 genes of all samples was also performed. Rotavirus diagnosis was carried out by ELISA and electron microscopy. RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing were performed in a one-tube format, using primer sets specific for each of the 11 genome segments. Analysis of the G (VP7) and P (VP4) genotypes showed that all strains identified were typical porcine RVAs (G4, G5, G9; P, P, P). Full-length genome sequencing was performed on selected G9 isolates. Most segments belonged to the genotype constellation 1 (Wa-like), which is shared by most human RVA strains, but gene types such as I5 (VP6) and A8 (NSP1), which are typical of porcine and rare among human RVAs, were also detected. We identified RVA strains showing the T7 genotype, an NSP3 gene type that was previously reported in unusual strains of possible porcine or bovine origin from children with diarrhea. Recent reports suggested that G9 RVA may have been introduced from swine to human populations involving gene reassortment events. The observation that some of the RVA genotypes from swine in Italy were similar to viruses characterized in children underlines the importance of animal RVA surveillance, to clarify and monitor the role of animals as genetic reservoirs of emerging RVA strains pathogenic for humans.Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 04/2014; · 3.22 Impact Factor