Whole genomic analysis reveals the porcine origin of human G9P rotavirus strains Mc323 and Mc345.
ABSTRACT The group A rotavirus (RVA) P is a rare P-genotype of the RVA VP4 gene, reported so far in humans and pigs. Whole genomic analyses of P strains are essential to study their origin and evolutionary patterns. To date, all the 11 genes of only two P strains, RVA/Human-wt/IND/RMC321/1990/G9P and RVA/Human-wt/IND/mani-97/2006/G9P, have been analyzed, providing evidence for their porcine origin. In the present study, the whole genomes of the first reported human P strains, RVA/Human-tc/THA/Mc323/1989/G9P and RVA/Human-tc/THA/Mc345/1989/G9P, were analyzed. Strains Mc323 and Mc345 exhibited a G9-P-I5-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1-E1-H1 genotype constellation. With the exception of the NSP5 gene, both the strains were closely related to each other. Most of the genes of Mc323 (VP2-4, VP6-7, NSP1-4 genes) and Mc345 (VP2-4, VP6-7 and NSP1-5 genes) appeared to be of porcine origin, whilst the exact origin of VP1 and NSP5 genes of Mc323 and VP1 gene of Mc345 could not be ascertained. Therefore, strains Mc323 and Mc345 were found to have a porcine RVA genetic backbone, and are likely of porcine origin. Taken together, our observations corroborated the hypothesis that P strains might be derived from porcine RVAs, providing important insights into the origin of P strains, and on interspecies transmission of RVAs.