Whole genomic analysis reveals the porcine origin of human G9P rotavirus strains Mc323 and Mc345
ABSTRACT The group A rotavirus (RVA) P is a rare P-genotype of the RVA VP4 gene, reported so far in humans and pigs. Whole genomic analyses of P strains are essential to study their origin and evolutionary patterns. To date, all the 11 genes of only two P strains, RVA/Human-wt/IND/RMC321/1990/G9P and RVA/Human-wt/IND/mani-97/2006/G9P, have been analyzed, providing evidence for their porcine origin. In the present study, the whole genomes of the first reported human P strains, RVA/Human-tc/THA/Mc323/1989/G9P and RVA/Human-tc/THA/Mc345/1989/G9P, were analyzed. Strains Mc323 and Mc345 exhibited a G9-P-I5-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1-E1-H1 genotype constellation. With the exception of the NSP5 gene, both the strains were closely related to each other. Most of the genes of Mc323 (VP2-4, VP6-7, NSP1-4 genes) and Mc345 (VP2-4, VP6-7 and NSP1-5 genes) appeared to be of porcine origin, whilst the exact origin of VP1 and NSP5 genes of Mc323 and VP1 gene of Mc345 could not be ascertained. Therefore, strains Mc323 and Mc345 were found to have a porcine RVA genetic backbone, and are likely of porcine origin. Taken together, our observations corroborated the hypothesis that P strains might be derived from porcine RVAs, providing important insights into the origin of P strains, and on interspecies transmission of RVAs.
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ABSTRACT: Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are agents causing severe gastroenteritis in infants and young animals. G9 RVA strains are believed to have originated from pigs. However, this genotype has emerged as the fifth major human RVA genotype worldwide. To better understand the relationship between human and porcine RVA strains, complete RVA genome data are needed. For human RVA strains, the number of complete genome data have grown exponentially. However, there is still a lack of complete genome data on porcine RVA strains. Recently, G9 RVA strains have been identified as the third most important genotype in diarrheic pigs in South Korea in combinations with P and P. This study is the first report on complete genome analyses of 1 G9P and 3 G9P porcine RVA strains, resulting in the following genotype constellation: G9-P/P-I5-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1-E1-H1. By comparisons of these genotype constellations, it was revealed that the Korean G9P and G9P RVA strains possessed a typical porcine RVA backbone, similar to other known porcine RVA strains. However, detailed phylogenetic analyses revealed the presence of intra-genotype reassortments among porcine RVA strains in South Korea. Thus, our data provide genetic information of G9 RVA strains increasingly detected in both humans and pigs, and will help to establish the role of pigs as a source or reservoir for novel human RVA strains.Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 05/2012; 12(7):1427-35. DOI:10.1016/j.meegid.2012.04.028 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several epidemiological studies reported the detection of rotavirus strains bearing unusual combinations of genetic background of human and porcine rotaviruses. This observation supports the hypothesis of interspecies transmission of rotaviruses in humans and pigs. The aims of this study were to investigate the genotypes and molecular characteristics of rotaviruses in piglets with diarrhea in several farms from two provinces in Thailand. A total of 207 fecal specimens collected from diarrheic piglets were screened for the presence of groups A, B, and C rotaviruses. Group A rotaviruses were detected in 41 out of 207 (19.8%) fecal specimens tested. A wide variety of G-P combination rotavirus strains were detected in this study. The G4P was identified as the most prevalent genotype (39.0%), followed by G4P (12.2%), G3P (7.3%), G4P (7.3%), G3P (4.9%), G3P (4.9%), G3P (4.9%), G9P (4.9%), G9P (4.9%), G5P, and G5P each of 2.4%. Furthermore, G5 and G9 in combinations with P-nontypeable strains were also found at each consisting of 2.4% (n=1) of the collection. It was interesting to note that among diversified porcine rotavirus strains, novel combinations of G4P and G9P strains were detected for the first time in this study. Nucleotide sequences of VP4 and VP7 of these strains were closely related to human rotaviruses reported previously. The data implies that these porcine rotaviruses were probably generated in nature from the reassortment between the viruses of human and porcine origin. This study provides valuable epidemiological information and molecular characteristics of porcine rotaviruses circulating in piglets with diarrhea in northern Thailand.Veterinary Microbiology 07/2012; 161(3-4). DOI:10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.07.036 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Group A rotaviruses with G2 and G9 VP7 specificity are common in humans, while G11 strains have been detected only sporadically. G2, G9 and G11 rotaviruses also circulate in pigs and swine rotaviruses have been suspected of interspecies and zoonotic transmissions in numerous studies. However, the complete gene constellation of G2 and G9 porcine rotaviruses has not yet been determined. In order to start filling this gap, the genomic make up of two G2, one G9 and one G11 porcine rotavirus strains, detected in Canada in 2005-2007, was determined. With the exception of a G2P strain, with E9 NSP4 type and mixed I5+I14 VP6 type, the constellation of genomic segments was rather conserved and were closely related to prototype porcine strains in the four viruses characterized (I5-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T7-E1-H1). Most notably, all the viruses displayed a rare NSP3 genotype, T7, which has also been identified in rare human reassortant strains and in the reference strain RVA/Cow-tc/GBR/UK/1973/G6P. This study provides crucial genetic data on these complex viruses and will help understand the origin and ecological niche of gene segments and the role played by pigs in their evolution.Veterinary Microbiology 09/2012; 162(1). DOI:10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.08.028 · 2.73 Impact Factor