The ASPIRE Study: Design and Methods of an In-Clinic Crossover Trial on the Efficacy of Automatic Insulin Pump Suspension in Exercise-Induced Hypoglycemia

Rainier Clinical Research Institute, Renton, Washington, USA.
Journal of diabetes science and technology 11/2011; 5(6):1466-71. DOI: 10.1177/193229681100500621
Source: PubMed


The Paradigm®Veo™ System includes a low glucose suspend (LGS) feature which suspends insulin delivery when a prespecified glucose threshold setting is reached by the associated continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensor. The ASPIRE (Automation to Simulate Pancreatic Insulin REsponse) study is a multicenter, in-clinic, randomized, crossover study to examine the efficacy of LGS in exercise-induced hypoglycemia.
Insulin-pump users underwent two separate exercise sessions, one with the LGS feature set to suspend insulin (LGS-on) when the CGM-detected glucose concentration was ≤ 70 mg/dl and one with the LGS feature off. Exercise sessions were conducted after an overnight fast and with initial plasma glucose level as measured by the YSI 2300 STAT Plus glucose analyzer (YSI) of 100-140 mg/dl. Subjects exercised until their YSI value fell to ≤ 85 mg/dl; subsequent YSI values <70 mg/dl were recorded for up to 4 h to measure the duration and nadir of hypoglycemia. The protocol required that subjects with YSI values <50 or >300 mg/dl were rescued with carbohydrates or insulin, respectively, based on the provider's recommendation. The primary end point was comparison of duration and severity of hypoglycemia between LGS-on and LGS-off sessions. Secondary end points included areas under the glucose concentration curve, CGM sensor accuracy, and last YSI glucose. Device- and procedure-related adverse events and serious adverse events were recorded.
Fifty adults and teenagers (17-58 years) with type 1 diabetes were randomized. Study completion is expected in November 2011.

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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of automatic suspension of insulin delivery in induced hypoglycemia among subjects with type 1 diabetes was evaluated. In this randomized crossover study, subjects used a sensor-augmented insulin pump system with a low glucose suspend (LGS) feature that automatically stops insulin delivery for 2 h following a sensor glucose (SG) value ≤70 mg/dL. Subjects fasted overnight and exercised until their plasma glucose (measured with the YSI 2300 STAT Plus™ glucose and lactate analyzer [YSI Life Sciences, Yellow Springs, OH]) value reached ≤85 mg/dL on different occasions separated by washout periods lasting 3-10 days. Exercise sessions were done with the LGS feature turned on (LGS-On) or with continued insulin delivery regardless of SG value (LGS-Off). The order of LGS-On and LGS-Off sessions was randomly assigned. YSI glucose data were used to compare the duration and severity of hypoglycemia from successful LGS-On and LGS-Off sessions and to estimate the risk of rebound hyperglycemia after pump suspension. Fifty subjects attempted 134 sessions, 98 of which were successful. The mean±SD hypoglycemia duration was less during LGS-On than during LGS-Off sessions (138.5±76.68 vs. 170.7±75.91 min, P=0.006). During LGS-On compared with LGS-Off sessions, mean nadir YSI glucose was higher (59.5±5.72 vs. 57.6±5.69 mg/dL, P=0.015), as was mean end-observation YSI glucose (91.4±41.84 vs. 66.2±13.48 mg/dL, P<0.001). Most (53.2%) end-observation YSI glucose values in LGS-On sessions were in the 70-180 mg/dL range, and none was >250 mg/dL. Automatic suspension of insulin delivery significantly reduced the duration and severity of induced hypoglycemia without causing rebound hyperglycemia.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 03/2012; 14(3):205-9. DOI:10.1089/dia.2011.0292 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nocturnal hypoglycemia is a barrier to therapy intensification efforts in diabetes. The Paradigm® Veo™ system may mitigate nocturnal hypoglycemia by automatically suspending insulin when a prespecified sensor glucose threshold is reached. ASPIRE (Automation to Simulate Pancreatic Insulin REsponse) In-Home (NCT01497938) was a multicenter, randomized, parallel, adaptive study of subjects with type 1 diabetes. The control arm used sensor-augmented pump therapy. The treatment arm used sensor-augmented pump therapy with threshold suspend, which automatically suspends the insulin pump in response to a sensor glucose value at or below a prespecified threshold. To be randomized, subjects had to have demonstrated ≥2 episodes of nocturnal hypoglycemia, defined as >20 consecutive minutes of sensor glucose values ≤65 mg/dl starting between 10:00 PM and 8:00 AM in the 2-week run-in phase. The 3-month study phase evaluated safety by comparing changes in glycated hemoglobin (A1C) values and evaluated efficacy by comparing the mean area under the glucose concentration time curves for nocturnal hypoglycemia events in the two groups. Other outcomes included the rate of nocturnal hypoglycemia events and the distribution of sensor glucose values. Data from the ASPIRE In-Home study should provide evidence on the safety of the threshold suspend feature with respect to A1C and its efficacy with respect to severity and duration of nocturnal hypoglycemia when used at home over a 3-month period.
    Journal of diabetes science and technology 08/2013; 7(4):1005-10.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The ASPIRE in-clinic study established that automatic suspension of insulin with the threshold suspend (TS) feature reduces the duration of induced hypoglycemia. The study's crossover design allowed the effects of antecedent hypoglycemia to be studied. Subjects and methods: The study enrolled 50 subjects who exercised until plasma glucose (YSI glucose and lactate analyzer; YSI, Inc., Yellow Springs, OH) reached ≤85 mg/dL. Hypoglycemia was evaluated after the YSI value reached <70 mg/dL. In TS experiments, insulin was stopped for 2 h once a sensor glucose (SG) value of ≤70 mg/dL was detected; in control experiments, basal insulin delivery continued. Subjects were randomly assigned to Group A (TS in Period 1; control in Period 2) or Group B (control in Period 1; TS in Period 2). Experiments were separated by 3-10 days. Results: Hypoglycemia was 63.7 min shorter in Period 1 TS experiments (no preceding control experiment) than in Period 2 TS experiments (one or more preceding control experiment(s)) (P<0.01). The number of experiments prior to a successful TS experiment was lower for Period 1 than for Period 2 (0.36 ± 0.64 vs. 1.57 ± 0.84; P<0.001), as was the cumulative duration of antecedent hypoglycemia (16.6 min vs. 204.6 min; P<0.001). The between-groups difference in hypoglycemia duration was not attributable to differences in SG rates of change, the duration of exercise, or area under the curve of <70 mg/dL × min in the 2 days before the successful experiment (all P>0.3). Conclusions: The TS feature's ability to mitigate hypoglycemia was decreased by an episode or episodes of prolonged antecedent hypoglycemia, suggesting hypoglycemia begets hypoglycemia. The effect of antecedent hypoglycemia should be taken into consideration in the design of future experiments assessing strategies to reduce hypoglycemia.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 01/2014; 16(3). DOI:10.1089/dia.2013.0219 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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