The ASPIRE Study: Design and Methods of an In-Clinic Crossover Trial on the Efficacy of Automatic Insulin Pump Suspension in Exercise-Induced Hypoglycemia

Rainier Clinical Research Institute, Renton, Washington, USA.
Journal of diabetes science and technology 11/2011; 5(6):1466-71. DOI: 10.1177/193229681100500621
Source: PubMed


The Paradigm®Veo™ System includes a low glucose suspend (LGS) feature which suspends insulin delivery when a prespecified glucose threshold setting is reached by the associated continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensor. The ASPIRE (Automation to Simulate Pancreatic Insulin REsponse) study is a multicenter, in-clinic, randomized, crossover study to examine the efficacy of LGS in exercise-induced hypoglycemia.
Insulin-pump users underwent two separate exercise sessions, one with the LGS feature set to suspend insulin (LGS-on) when the CGM-detected glucose concentration was ≤ 70 mg/dl and one with the LGS feature off. Exercise sessions were conducted after an overnight fast and with initial plasma glucose level as measured by the YSI 2300 STAT Plus glucose analyzer (YSI) of 100-140 mg/dl. Subjects exercised until their YSI value fell to ≤ 85 mg/dl; subsequent YSI values <70 mg/dl were recorded for up to 4 h to measure the duration and nadir of hypoglycemia. The protocol required that subjects with YSI values <50 or >300 mg/dl were rescued with carbohydrates or insulin, respectively, based on the provider's recommendation. The primary end point was comparison of duration and severity of hypoglycemia between LGS-on and LGS-off sessions. Secondary end points included areas under the glucose concentration curve, CGM sensor accuracy, and last YSI glucose. Device- and procedure-related adverse events and serious adverse events were recorded.
Fifty adults and teenagers (17-58 years) with type 1 diabetes were randomized. Study completion is expected in November 2011.

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    • "Thereafter, automation features in CGM-CSII were introduced. The use of an automatic suspension of insulin delivery significantly reduced the rate [Ly et al. (2013)] and severity of hypoglycaemia , thereby avoiding rebound hyperglycemia [Brazg et al. (2011)]. Later, in Danne et al. (2014) the use of a predictive low glucose management system reduced the severity of hypoglycemia beyond that already achieved by threshold-based suspension algorithms. "

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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of automatic suspension of insulin delivery in induced hypoglycemia among subjects with type 1 diabetes was evaluated. In this randomized crossover study, subjects used a sensor-augmented insulin pump system with a low glucose suspend (LGS) feature that automatically stops insulin delivery for 2 h following a sensor glucose (SG) value ≤70 mg/dL. Subjects fasted overnight and exercised until their plasma glucose (measured with the YSI 2300 STAT Plus™ glucose and lactate analyzer [YSI Life Sciences, Yellow Springs, OH]) value reached ≤85 mg/dL on different occasions separated by washout periods lasting 3-10 days. Exercise sessions were done with the LGS feature turned on (LGS-On) or with continued insulin delivery regardless of SG value (LGS-Off). The order of LGS-On and LGS-Off sessions was randomly assigned. YSI glucose data were used to compare the duration and severity of hypoglycemia from successful LGS-On and LGS-Off sessions and to estimate the risk of rebound hyperglycemia after pump suspension. Fifty subjects attempted 134 sessions, 98 of which were successful. The mean±SD hypoglycemia duration was less during LGS-On than during LGS-Off sessions (138.5±76.68 vs. 170.7±75.91 min, P=0.006). During LGS-On compared with LGS-Off sessions, mean nadir YSI glucose was higher (59.5±5.72 vs. 57.6±5.69 mg/dL, P=0.015), as was mean end-observation YSI glucose (91.4±41.84 vs. 66.2±13.48 mg/dL, P<0.001). Most (53.2%) end-observation YSI glucose values in LGS-On sessions were in the 70-180 mg/dL range, and none was >250 mg/dL. Automatic suspension of insulin delivery significantly reduced the duration and severity of induced hypoglycemia without causing rebound hyperglycemia.
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