Effect of water-soluble fraction from lysozyme-treated Enterococcus faecalis FK-23 on mortality caused by influenza A virus in mice.
ABSTRACT To maintain homeostasis of the immune system is considered important for the prevention of influenza A virus infection. Aberrant systemic inflammation is frequently induced by influenza A virus infection, and the severity of the symptoms is associated with pathogenicity of the virus. Lactic acid bacteria are known to have a positive effect in maintaining the immune system. Furthermore, preparations of a lactic acid bacteria strain, Enterococcus faecalis FK-23 (FK-23), have been reported to exert preferable homeostatic effects on immune diseases such as allergic rhinitis and early asthmatic responses. In this study, we examined the efficacy of the water-soluble fraction of lysed and heat-treated FK-23 (SLFK) against a lethal influenza A virus challenge. Mice were orally administered SLFK from day -7 to day 20, and intranasally infected with influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) at 10(3) PFU on day 0. The survival rate of SLFK-administered mice after influenza A virus infection was significantly improved compared with that of control mice. In addition, the mRNA expression level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) in lung tissues was enhanced by the oral administration of SLFK after influenza A virus infection. These observations suggest that the oral administration of SLFK exerts a protective effect against influenza virus infection through the activation of the anti-inflammatory response.
- SourceAvailable from: Keisuke Enomoto[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Our previous studies have presented evidence that lysed Enterococcus faecalis FK-23 (LFK), a lysozyme and heat-treated probiotic product, can inhibit allergen-induced local accumulation of eosinophils in mice. The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the influence of orally administrated LFK on the host immune responses. BALB/c mice were sensitized subcutaneously, and challenged intraperitoneally by cedar pollen allergen. Blood and spleen samples were collected after oral administration of LFK 60 mg/day for 21 days. The serum levels of total and allergen-specific IgE and IgG2a antibodies and the production of IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-gamma generated by allergen-stimulated cultured splenocytes were determined. Additionally, the effect of LFK on active cutaneous anaphylaxis (ACA) induced by ovalbumin (OVA) challenge in mice was measured after 28 days LFK treatment. No significant differences in serum immunoglobulin levels, as well as in cytokine production of splenocytes were observed between LFK-treated and control mice (P>0.05). There was, however, an increasing tendency of allergen-specific IgG2a level in mice after LFK treatment for 21 days compared with controls (P=0.060). Furthermore, the serum ratio of specific IgE to IgG2a was found to be significantly decreased in the LFK group (P=0.005). In addition, a significant inhibition of OVA-induced ACA reaction was observed in mice that had been fed for 28 days with LFK compared with control mice (P=0.008). These results suggest that LFK shows an anti-inflammatory effect, which may be part of the mechanism for protection against IgE-mediated allergy.Clinical & Experimental Allergy 11/2004; 34(11):1784-8. · 4.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The prophylactic effects of heat-killed cells of Enterococcus faecalis FK-23 (FK-23 preparation) on experimental candidiasis were investigated in normal and leukopenic mice. In cyclophosphamide-induced leukopenic mice, oral or intraperitoneal administration of the FK-23 preparation at a daily dose of 1.25 or 5 mg/mouse for 3 consecutive days prior to Candida albicans infection significantly prolonged survival periods of the infected mice, and decreased viable counts of C. albicans recovered from their kidneys. In normal mice, the FK-23 preparation administered at dosages ranging from 0.63 to 10 mg/mouse/day for 3 consecutive days was ineffective, while in leukopenic mice, the FK-23 administered orally caused a facilitated recovery in the number of white blood cells including neutrophils. Furthermore, intraperitoneal administration of the FK-23 preparation into mice augmented the anti-Candida activity of immunocompromised peritoneal exudate cells obtained from the animals. These results suggested the potential usefulness of the FK-23 preparation as a prophylactic agent for the management of patients with opportunistic fungal infections.Microbiology and Immunology 02/1996; 40(3):217-22. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The 1918 influenza pandemic was unusually severe, resulting in about 50 million deaths worldwide. The 1918 virus is also highly pathogenic in mice, and studies have identified a multigenic origin of this virulent phenotype in mice. However, these initial characterizations of the 1918 virus did not address the question of its pathogenic potential in primates. Here we demonstrate that the 1918 virus caused a highly pathogenic respiratory infection in a cynomolgus macaque model that culminated in acute respiratory distress and a fatal outcome. Furthermore, infected animals mounted an immune response, characterized by dysregulation of the antiviral response, that was insufficient for protection, indicating that atypical host innate immune responses may contribute to lethality. The ability of influenza viruses to modulate host immune responses, such as that demonstrated for the avian H5N1 influenza viruses, may be a feature shared by the virulent influenza viruses.Nature 02/2007; 445(7125):319-23. · 38.60 Impact Factor