In situ tissue engineering using magnetically guided three-dimensional cell patterning.
ABSTRACT Manipulation of cell patterns in three dimensions in a manner that mimics natural tissue organization and function is critical for cell biological studies and likely essential for successfully regenerating tissues--especially cells with high physiological demands, such as those of the heart, liver, lungs, and articular cartilage.(1, 2) In the present study, we report on the feasibility of arranging iron oxide-labeled cells in three-dimensional hydrogels using magnetic fields. By manipulating the strength, shape, and orientation of the magnetic field and using crosslinking gradients in hydrogels, multi-directional cell arrangements can be produced in vitro and even directly in situ. We show that these ferromagnetic particles are nontoxic between 0.1 and 10 mg/mL; certain species of particles can permit or even enhance tissue formation, and these particles can be tracked using magnetic resonance imaging. Taken together, this approach can be adapted for studying basic biological processes in vitro, for general tissue engineering approaches, and for producing organized repair tissues directly in situ.
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ABSTRACT: The current limitations of regenerative medicine strategies may be overcome through the use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), a class of nanomaterial typically composed of magnetic elements that can be manipulated under the influence of an external magnetic field. Cell engineering approaches following the internalization of these MNPs by cells and/or the incorporation of these nanosystems within 3D constructs (scaffolds or hydrogels) may constitute a new attractive approach to achieve a magnetically responsive system enabling remote control over tissue-engineered constructs in an in vivo scenario. Moreover, the incorporation of bioactive factors within these MNPs also enables a targeted and smart delivery of biomolecules to specific regions and/or triggering specific cell responses upon external magnetic stimulation. Certainly, one of the most attractive properties of MNPs is their ability to be used as theranostic tools for regenerative medicine applications, enabling live monitoring and tracking of the system while simultaneously acting as a therapeutic stimulation.Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics 07/2013; 13(6):553-66. · 4.09 Impact Factor