In situ tissue engineering using magnetically guided three-dimensional cell patterning.
ABSTRACT Manipulation of cell patterns in three dimensions in a manner that mimics natural tissue organization and function is critical for cell biological studies and likely essential for successfully regenerating tissues--especially cells with high physiological demands, such as those of the heart, liver, lungs, and articular cartilage.(1, 2) In the present study, we report on the feasibility of arranging iron oxide-labeled cells in three-dimensional hydrogels using magnetic fields. By manipulating the strength, shape, and orientation of the magnetic field and using crosslinking gradients in hydrogels, multi-directional cell arrangements can be produced in vitro and even directly in situ. We show that these ferromagnetic particles are nontoxic between 0.1 and 10 mg/mL; certain species of particles can permit or even enhance tissue formation, and these particles can be tracked using magnetic resonance imaging. Taken together, this approach can be adapted for studying basic biological processes in vitro, for general tissue engineering approaches, and for producing organized repair tissues directly in situ.
- SourceAvailable from: Ali Khademhosseini[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Microscale technologies are emerging as powerful tools for tissue engineering and biological studies. In this review, we present an overview of these technologies in various tissue engineering applications, such as for fabricating 3D microfabricated scaffolds, as templates for cell aggregate formation, or for fabricating materials in a spatially regulated manner. In addition, we give examples of the use of microscale technologies for controlling the cellular microenvironment in vitro and for performing high-throughput assays. The use of microfluidics, surface patterning, and patterned cocultures in regulating various aspects of cellular microenvironment is discussed, as well as the application of these technologies in directing cell fate and elucidating the underlying biology. Throughout this review, we will use specific examples where available and will provide trends and future directions in the field.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2006; 103(8):2480-7. · 9.74 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent findings suggest that articular cartilage contains mesenchymal progenitor cells. The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of stem cell markers (Notch-1, Stro-1 and VCAM-1) and of molecules that modulate progenitor differentiation (Notch-1 and Sox9) in normal adult human articular cartilage and in osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage. Expression of the markers was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and flow cytometry. Hoechst 33342 dye was used to identify and sort the cartilage side population (SP). Multilineage differentiation assays including chondrogenesis, osteogenesis and adipogenesis were performed on SP and non-SP (NSP) cells. A surprisingly high number (>45%) of cells were positive for Notch-1, Stro-1 and VCAM-1 throughout normal cartilage. Expression of these markers was higher in the superficial zone (SZ) of normal cartilage as compared to the middle zone (MZ) and deep zone (DZ). Non-fibrillated OA cartilage SZ showed reduced Notch-1 and Sox9 staining frequency, while Notch-1, Stro-1 and VCAM-1 positive cells were increased in the MZ. Most cells in OA clusters were positive for each molecule tested. The frequency of SP cells in cartilage was 0.14 +/- 0.05% and no difference was found between normal and OA. SP cells displayed chondrogenic and osteogenic but not adipogenic differentiation potential. These results show a surprisingly high number of cells that express putative progenitor cell markers in human cartilage. In contrast, the percentage of SP cells is much lower and within the range of expected stem cell frequency. Thus, markers such as Notch-1, Stro-1 or VCAM-1 may not be useful to identify progenitors in cartilage. Instead, their increased expression in OA cartilage implicates involvement in the abnormal cell activation and differentiation process characteristic of OA.Arthritis research & therapy 06/2009; 11(3):R85. · 4.27 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Presently, there is a recognized and imperative need for bioartificial organs. The technological advances in transgenosis, tissue engineering, and rapid prototyping have led to the development of spatially complex tissues. An ideal artificial organ should provide nutrient transport system, mechanical stable architecture, and synergetic multicellular organization in one construct. The multinozzle rapid prototyping technique simultaneously assembles vascular systems including hierarchical multicellular structures in an automated and reproducible manner and offers an effective way for treating organ failures. In this article, a brief overview of the recent trends and outstanding challenges in organ manufacturing is provided. From the viewpoint of disciplinary crossing, integration, and development, future directions in the coming years were pointed out.Tissue Engineering Part B Reviews 10/2009; 16(2):189-97. · 4.64 Impact Factor