The argatroban and tissue-type plasminogen activator stroke study: final results of a pilot safety study.

Department of Neurology, University of Texas–Houston Medical School, Houston, TX, USA.
Stroke (Impact Factor: 6.02). 03/2012; 43(3):770-5. DOI: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.625574
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Argatroban is a direct thrombin inhibitor that safely augments recanalization achieved by tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) in animal stroke models. The Argatroban tPA Stroke Study was an open-label, pilot safety study of tPA plus Argatroban in patients with ischemic stroke due to proximal intracranial occlusion.
During standard-dose intravenous tPA, a 100-μg/kg bolus of Argatroban and infusion for 48 hours was adjusted to a target partial thromboplastin time of 1.75× baseline. The primary outcome was incidence of significant intracerebral hemorrhage defined as either symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage or Parenchymal Hematoma Type 2. Recanalization was measured at 2 and 24 hours by transcranial Doppler or CT angiography.
Sixty-five patients were enrolled (45% men, mean age 63±14 years, median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale=13). The median (interquartile range) time tPA to Argatroban bolus was 51 (38-60) minutes. Target anticoagulation was reached at a median (interquartile range) of 3 (2-7) hours. Significant intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in 4 patients (6.2%; 95% CI, 1.7-15.0). Of these, 3 were symptomatic (4.6%; 95% CI, 0.9-12.9). Seven patients (10%) died in the first 7 days. Within the 2-hour monitoring period, transcranial Doppler recanalization (n=47) occurred in 29 (61%) patients: complete in 19 (40%) and partial in another 10 (21%).
The combination of Argatroban and intravenous tPA is potentially safe in patients with moderate neurological deficits due to proximal intracranial arterial occlusions and may produce more complete recanalization than tPA alone. Continued evaluation of this treatment combination is warranted.
URL: Unique identifier: NCT00268762.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several lines of evidence support the involvement of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) in stroke brain damage. The lectin pathway of the complement system facilitates thrombin activation and clot formation under certain experimental conditions. In the present study, we examine whether MBL promotes thrombosis after ischemia/reperfusion and influences the course and prognosis of ischemic stroke. Middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion was performed in MBL-deficient (n=85) and wild-type (WT; n=83) mice, and the brain lesion was assessed by MRI at days 1 and 7. Relative cerebral blood flow was monitored up to 6 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion with laser speckle contrast imaging. Fibrin(ogen) was analyzed in the brain vasculature and plasma, and the effects of thrombin inhibitor argatroban were evaluated to assess the role of MBL in thrombin activation. Infarct volumes and neurological deficits were smaller in MBL knockout mice than in WT mice. Relative cerebral blood flow values during middle cerebral artery occlusion and at reperfusion were similar in both groups, but decreased during the next 6 hours in the WT group only. Also, the WT mice showed more fibrin(ogen) in brain vessels and a better outcome after argatroban treatment. In contrast, argatroban did not improve the outcome in MBL knockout mice. MBL promotes brain damage and functional impairment after brain ischemia/reperfusion in mice. These effects are secondary to intravascular thrombosis and impaired relative cerebral blood flow during reperfusion. Argatroban protects WT mice, but not MBL knockout mice, emphasizing a role of MBL in local thrombus formation in acute ischemia/reperfusion.
    Stroke 03/2014; · 6.02 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acute ischemic stroke is a medical emergency requiring urgent treatment. Randomized clinical trial and Phase IV data have provided unequivocal evidence that intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) improves early functional outcomes by restoring brain perfusion. Moreover, these studies have shed substantial light on the factors which are associated with more favorable outcome with tPA and are related to the highest benefit-to-risk ratio. Stroke physicians should consider vascular imaging techniques to aid decision making with thrombolytic therapy. The presence of intracranial occlusion is the target of treatment with early recanalization being the goal. Successful use of intravenous thrombolysis depends on a sound understanding of the decision-making process and organization of the treating team who strives for early treatment initiation and strict adherence to the protocol. Intravenous rt-PA within 4.5 h of onset should now be a standard treatment of acute disabling ischemic stroke throughout the world. This review also summarizes intravenous thrombolysis contraindications as well as the safety of novel reperfusion therapies including tenecteplase, sonothrombolysis and the combination of alteplase with direct thrombin inhibitors or glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists.
    Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 07/2014; · 2.96 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Urgent reperfusion of the ischaemic brain is the aim of stroke treatment and there has been ongoing research to find a drug that can promote vessel recanalisation more completely and with less side effects. In this review article, the major studies which have validated the use and safety of tPA are discussed. The safety and efficacy of other thrombolytic and anticoagulative agents such as tenecteplase, desmoteplase, ancrod, tirofiban, abciximab, eptifibatide, and argatroban are also reviewed. Tenecteplase and desmoteplase are both plasminogen activators with higher fibrin affinity and longer half-life compared to alteplase.They have shown greater reperfusion rates and improved functional outcomes in preliminary studies. Argatroban is a direct thrombin inhibitor used as an adjunct to intravenous tPA and showed higher rates of complete recanalisation in the ARTTS study with further studies which are now ongoing. Adjuvant thrombolysis techniques using transcranial ultrasound are also being investigated and have shown higher rates of complete recanalisation, for example, in the CLOTBUST study. Overall, development in medical therapies for stroke is important due to the ease of administration compared to endovascular treatments, and the new treatments such as tenecteplase, desmoteplase, and adjuvant sonothrombolysis are showing promising results and await further large-scale clinical trials.
    Thrombosis Journal 12/2014; 2014(714218):14. · 1.31 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 22, 2014