Article

Muscarinic receptor agonists and antagonists: effects on inflammation and immunity

School of Public Health, Harvard University, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Handbook of experimental pharmacology 01/2012; 208(208):403-27. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-23274-9_17
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In this chapter, we will review what is known about muscarinic regulation of immune cells and the contribution of immune cell muscarinic receptors to inflammatory disease and immunity. In particular, immune cell expression of cholinergic machinery, muscarinic receptor subtypes and functional consequences of agonist stimulation will be reviewed. Lastly, this chapter will discuss the potential therapeutic effects of selective antagonists on immune cell function and inflammatory disease in recent animal studies and human clinical trials.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Norah G Verbout, Feb 02, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
106 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Within the autonomic system, acetylcholine signaling contributes simultaneously and interactively to cognitive, behavioral, muscle and immune functions. Therefore, manipulating cholinergic parameters such as the activities of the acetylcholine hydrolyzing enzymes in body fluids or the corresponding transcript levels in blood leukocytes can change the global status of the autonomic system in treated individuals. Specifically, cholinesterase activities are subject to rapid and effective changes. The enzyme activity baseline increases with age and body mass index and depends on gender and ethnic origin. Also, the corresponding DNA (for detecting mutations) and RNA (for measuring specific mRNA transcripts) of cholinergic genes present individual variability. In leukocytes, acetylcholine inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, suggesting relevance of cholinergic parameters to both the basal levels and to disease-induced inflammation. Inversely, acetylcholine levels increase under various stress stimuli, inducing changes in autonomic system molecules (e.g., pro-inflammatory cytokines) which can penetrate the brain; therefore, manipulating these levels can also effect brain reactions, mainly of anxiety, depression and pain. Additionally, neurodegenerative diseases often involve exacerbated inflammation, depression and anxiety, providing a focus interest group for cholinergic manipulations. In Alzheimer's disease, the systemic cholinergic impairments reflect premature death of cholinergic neurons. The decline of cholinesterases in the serum of Parkinson's disease and post- stroke patients, discovery of the relevant microRNAs and the growing range of use of anticholinesterase medications all call for critical re-inspection of established and novel approaches for manipulating cholinergic parameters.
    Chemico-biological interactions 08/2012; 203(1). DOI:10.1016/j.cbi.2012.07.007 · 2.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acetylcholine has been implicated in both the pathophysiology and treatment of a number of psychiatric disorders, with most of the data related to its role and therapeutic potential focusing on schizophrenia. However, there is little thought given to the consequences of the documented changes in the cholinergic system and how they may affect the functioning of the brain. This review looks at the cholinergic system and its interactions with the intrinsic neurotransmitters glutamate and gamma-amino butyric acid as well as those with the projection neurotransmitters most implicated in the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders; dopamine and serotonin. In addition, with the recent focus on the role of factors normally associated with inflammation in the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders, links between the cholinergic system and these factors will also be examined. These interfaces are put into context, primarily for schizophrenia, by looking at the changes in each of these systems in the disorder and exploring, theoretically, whether the changes are interconnected with those seen in the cholinergic system. Thus, this review will provide a comprehensive overview of the connectivity between the cholinergic system and some of the major areas of research into the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders, resulting in a critical appraisal of the potential outcomes of a dysregulated central cholinergic system.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 05/2013; 7:55. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2013.00055 · 4.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Immune cells expressing the activation markers HLA-DR and regulatory T cells (Tregs) may be involved in the regulation of chronic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study we analyzed native and activated cell profiles in sputum of 22 stable COPD patients receiving formoterol (F) or formoterol + tiotropium (F + T) for 3 months. Cells were isolated from induced sputum and were examined on Coulter flow cytometer using fluorescent antibodies specific for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD14, CD19, CD25, CD127, and HLA-DR antigens. Cell profiles and cell activation were assessed by analysis of HLA-DR, CD25, and CD127 co-expression in double-stained samples. Tregs were defined as CD4(+)CD25(high) CD127(low) cells. We found that the combined therapy significantly decreased the CD8(+) cell number (p < 0.01). At baseline, HLA-DR was expressed in about 10 % of sputum T or B cells and a higher expression was found on monocytes. The HLA-DR expression on lymphocytes, but not monocytes, was significantly lower (p < 0.01) in patients treated with F + T. Fractions of activated [CD4(+) CD25(+)] cells were also significantly lower in the combined therapy group, except for the subpopulation of CD4(+)CD25(high) CD127(low) cells which was not altered. We conclude that tiotropium in add-on therapy to formoterol affects Treg cell profiles and decreases HLA-DR expression in airway lymphocytes.
    Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 10/2014; 839. DOI:10.1007/5584_2014_43 · 2.01 Impact Factor