Unit of Family Practice, Central Finland Central Hospital, Jyväskylä, Finland (Kautiainen)
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research (Impact Factor: 2.08). 01/2012; 26(12). DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e318248ad54
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although several everyday functions and sporting activities demand controlled use of the abdominal and back muscles while working with the upper limbs, the activity of core muscles during dynamic upper limb exercises in the standing position has not been studied extensively. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine abdominal and back muscle activity during dynamic upper limb exercises while standing and to evaluate whether dynamic exercises are appropriate for strengthening muscles. The activation of the rectus abdominis, obliquus externus abdominis, longissimus, and multifidus muscles during dynamic bilateral or unilateral shoulder exercises with or without fixation of the pelvis was measured in 20 healthy women using surface electromyography (EMG). Trunk muscle activation during isometric maximum contraction was used as a comparative reference. With bilateral shoulder extension and unilateral shoulder horizontal adduction, abdominal muscle activity was more than 60% of activity during reference exercises. With unilateral shoulder horizontal abduction and shoulder extension exercises, back muscle activity was more than 60% of the activity level reference exercise. Muscle activation levels were 35-64% lower during shoulder horizontal adduction and abduction without fixation compared to exercises with fixation. The results indicate that upper limb exercises performed in the standing position are effective for activating core muscles. Bilateral and unilateral shoulder extension and unilateral shoulder horizontal abduction and adduction with the pelvis fixed elicited the greatest activity of the core muscles.

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    • "In the development of the protocol for the intervention arm, we have used information obtained from our own trunk muscle electromyography studies, conducted among healthy subjects [19,20] and lumbar fusion patients (Tarnanen et al., unpublished observation), other previously published studies on trunk and hip muscle activation during exercises [21-24], as well as information from a multidisciplinary group in the study hospitals (physiotherapists, nurses, spine surgeons), and feedback from patients regarding the feasibility of the program. The timing of the beginning of intervention is based on recovery from the surgery. "
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    BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 07/2012; 13(1):123. DOI:10.1186/1471-2474-13-123 · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lumbar spine fusion (LSF) has been reported to change the biomechanics of the spine and therefore the rehabilitation after LSF is important. In the present study the effect of selected neutral spine control (NSC) exercises on activation of trunk muscles after LSF were evaluated. Muscle activity was measured by surface electromyography of the rectus abdominis, external oblique, longissimus, and multifidus muscles during six exercises in 22 LSF patients (mean age 59 y; age range 25-84 y; 50% women). Muscle activity concurrent with trunk flexion and extension during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was used as a reference value. Pain during the effort was assessed with a visual analogue scale (VAS). The highest activity in the rectus abdominis muscles was measured during bilateral shoulder extension (51% of MVIC), and in the external oblique it occurred during unilateral shoulder horizontal adduction (48% of MVIC) and unilateral hip extension (46% of MVIC) exercises. The highest activation of the multifidus and longissimus muscles (60-104%) was measured during bilateral shoulder flexion and modified Roman chair exercises. The mean (standard deviation) self-reported back-pain VAS scores during exercises varied from 3 (7) to 16 (26). NSC exercises activate trunk muscles and cause minimal pain and are therefore feasible exercises for home-based training to improve muscle endurance and postural control after LSF. In addition, the level of muscle activity during bilateral shoulder flexion and modified Roman chair exercises was over 60% of MVIC, justifying their use in training for strength of the trunk extensor muscles.
    The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 12/2013; 28(7). DOI:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000334 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    The Physician and sportsmedicine 05/2014; 42(2):80-7. DOI:10.3810/psm.2014.05.2060 · 1.09 Impact Factor
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