Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate enhances 5-fluorouracil-induced cell growth inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
ABSTRACT Aim: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs. Resistance to 5-FU is a major cause of chemotherapy failure in advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Green tea polyphenol Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) plays a critical role in growth inhibition and apoptotic induction in HCC cell lines. The aim of this study is to investigate whether EGCG can enhance 5-FU-induced cell growth inhibition and to explore its potential mechanisms. Methods: 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to evaluate cell growth. Western blotting analysis was performed to detect the proteins expression in Hep3B cells. Small interfering RNA was used to suppress cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Furthermore, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to test the prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2) ) production in cell cultures. Results: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate augmented the anti-tumor effect of 5-FU in Hep3B cells. Significant difference was observed between the treated groups and the control group (P < 0.05). EGCG (its concentrations at over 5 µmol/L) combined with 5-FU presented a synergic effect. Furthermore, the combination of EGCG and 5-FU abrogated the COX-2 overexpression and PGE(2) secretion induced by 5-FU. The upregulation of COX-2 expression decreased the phosphorylation of Akt (Thr(308) ) expression. These appeared to be followed by the AMPK hyperactivation. Conclusion: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate sensitizes HCC cells to 5-FU antitumor activity, and the combination of EGCG and 5-FU exhibits synergism in chemo-resistant cancer cells. The results suggest potential novel therapies for the treatment of advanced-stage liver cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Despite the advances in biomedical research and clinical applications, cancer remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Given the limitations of conventional chemotherapeutics, including serious toxicities and reduced quality of life for patients, the development of safe and efficacious alternatives with known mechanism of action is much needed. Prevention of cancer through dietary intervention may hold promise and has been investigated extensively in the recent years. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor that plays a key role in the regulation of protein and lipid metabolism in response to changes in fuel availability. When activated, AMPK promotes energy-producing catabolic pathways while inhibiting anabolic pathways, such as cell growth and proliferation - thereby antagonizing carcinogenesis. Other anti-cancer effects of AMPK may include promoting autophagy and DNA repair upon UVB damage. In the last decade, interest in AMPK has grown extensively as it emerged as an attractive target molecule for cancer prevention and treatment. Among the latest developments is the activation of AMPK by naturally occurring dietary constituents and plant products - termed phytochemicals. Owing to their efficacy and safety, phytochemicals are considered as an alternative to the conventional harmful chemotherapy. The rising popularity of using phytochemicals for cancer prevention and therapy is supported by a substantial progress in identifying the molecular pathways involved, including AMPK. In this article, we review the recent progress in this budding field that suggests AMPK as a new molecular target in the prevention and treatment of cancer by phytochemicals.Frontiers in Oncology 01/2013; 3:175.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Over the past three years numerous patents and patent applications have been published relating to scientific advances in the use of the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (the most abundant, and bioactive compound in green tea) and its analogs as anticancer agents. EGCG affects multiple molecular targets involved in cancer cell proliferation and survival; however, polyphenolic catechins, such as EGCG, generally exhibit poor oral bioavailability. Since the anticancer activity of polyphenols largely depends on their susceptibility to biotransformation reactions, numerous EGCG derivatives, analogs and prodrugs have been designed to improve the stability, bioavailability and anticancer potency of the native compound. Areas covered: This review focuses on the applications of EGCG and its analogs, derivatives and prodrugs in the prevention and treatment of human cancers. A comprehensive description of patents related to EGCG and its derivatives, analogs and prodrugs and their uses as anticancer agents is included. Expert opinion: EGCG targets multiple essential survival proteins and pathways in human cancer cells. Because it is unstable physiologically, numerous alterations to the EGCG molecule have been patented, either to improve the integrity of the native compound or to generate a more stable yet similarly efficacious molecule. EGCG and its derivatives, analogs and prodrugs could be developed into future drugs for chemoprevention, chemosensitization, radiosensitization and/or cancer interception.Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents 12/2012; · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is still the number one cause of death from cancer worldwide. The clinical effect of platinum-based chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer is constrained by the resistance to drug. To overcome chemo-resistance, various modified treatment including combination therapy has been used, but overall survival has not been improved yet. In this study, chemo-resistant lung cancer cells, A549/Cis and H460/Cis, were developed by long-term exposure of cells to cisplatin and the proliferative capability of these resistant cells was verified to be reduced. We found cytotoxic effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major catechin derived from green tea, on both the parental lung cancer cells, A549 and H460, and their cisplatin resistant cells, A549/Cis and H460/Cis. ELISA and Western blot analysis revealed that EGCG was able to increase interlukine-6 (IL-6) production per cell, whereas its downstream effector Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation was not changed by EGCG, indicating that IL-6/STAT3 axis is not the critical signaling to be inhibited by EGCG. We next found that EGCG suppresses the expression of both Axl and Tyro 3 receptor tyrosine kinases at mRNA and protein level, explaining the cytotoxic effect of EGCG on lung cancer cells, especially, regardless of cisplatin resistance. Taken together, these data suggest that EGCG impedes proliferation of lung cancer cells including their chemo-resistant variants through downregulation of Axl and Tyro 3 expression.Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 02/2014; 18(1):61-6. · 1.00 Impact Factor