Article

Does Diabetes Care Differ by Type of Chronic Comorbidity? An evaluation of the Piette and Kerr framework

Department of Veterans Affairs, Center for Health Care Knowledge and Management, Veterans Affairs New Jersey Health Care System, East Orange, New Jersey, USA.
Diabetes care (Impact Factor: 8.57). 03/2012; 35(6):1285-92. DOI: 10.2337/dc11-1569
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To evaluate the relationship between diabetes care and types of comorbidity, classified by the degree to which their treatment is concordant with that for diabetes.
Retrospective cohort study (fiscal year [FY] 2001 to FY 2004) of 42,826 veterans with new-onset diabetes in FY 2003. Veterans were classified into five chronic comorbid illness groups (CCIGs): none, concordant only, discordant only, both concordant and discordant, and dominant. Five diabetes-related care measures were assessed in FY 2004 (guideline-consistent testing and treatment goals for HbA(1c) and LDL cholesterol and diabetes-related outpatient visits). Analyses included logistic regressions adjusting for age, race, sex, marital status, priority code, and interaction between CCIGs and visit frequency.
Only 20% of patients had no comorbidities. Mean number of visits per year ranged from 7.8 (no CCIG) to 17.5 (dominant CCIG). In unadjusted analyses, presence of any illness was associated with equivalent or better care. In the fully adjusted model, we found interaction between CCIG and visit frequency. When visits were <7 per year, the odds of meeting the goal of HbA(1c) <8% were similar in the concordant (odds ratio 0.96 [95% CI 0.83-1.11]) and lower in the discordant (0.90 [0.81-0.99]) groups compared with the no comorbidity group. Among patients with >24 visits per year, these odds were insignificant. Dominant CCIG was associated with substantially reduced care for glycemic control for all visit categories and for lipid management at all but the highest visit category.
Our study indicates that diabetes care varies by types of comorbidity. Concordant illnesses result in similar or better care, regardless of visit frequency. Discordant illnesses are associated with diminished care: an effect that decreases as visit frequency increases.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Cindy L Christiansen, Sep 04, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
120 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of including of clinical actions within 6 months of a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level greater than 8% upon measure adherence (pass rates) and to assess the association between patient factors and the likelihood of not passing. Veterans Health Administration. Retrospective cohort study for FY2002 to FY2004. One hundred fifty-three thousand one hundred thirty-two veterans aged 65-74 with diabetes mellitus not taking insulin; 99% were male and 86% white. The clinical action measure included three categories: (a) initial pass (index HbA1c < 8%); (b) modified pass (index HbA1c ≥ 8%), and the hierarchical occurrence of one of the following events within 6 months after date of index HbA1c: subsequent HbA1c < 8%, being started on insulin (100% weight), new oral medication (50% weight), care in a diabetes mellitus-related clinic (25% weight); and (c) failure (no category met or HbA1c > 9%). Multinomial logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between participant factors and the likelihood of not passing initially. Most (82.6%) or the participants had an index HbA1c of less than 8%, and 10.6% were in the modified pass group. The failure rate (17.4%) fell to 6.8% when actions were weighted equally and to 9.4% using different weights. Veterans who are African American (odds ratios (ORs) = 1.43 and 1.44), unmarried (ORs = 1.19 and 1.24), poor (ORs = 1.36 and 1.17), or taking two or more oral antihyperglycemic agents (ORs = 2.61 and 3.72) were significantly more likely to be in the modified pass and failure groups, respectively. Most veterans with an initial HbA1c of 8% or greater had clinical actions within 6 months. A measure that incorporates multiple treatment options, including education and nutrition, could be of benefit by encouraging dialogue of such options between patients and clinicians.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 08/2012; 60(8):1442-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2012.04079.x · 4.22 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Many patients with cardiovascular disease do not attain the targets for health-related lifestyle and preventive treatment recommended in practice guidelines. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of diabetes (DM) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on the quality of cardiovascular risk management in patients with established cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Methods and Results: Patients with established CVD were randomly selected in primary care practices using recorded diagnoses. Structured case forms were used to review data on 20 performance indicators concerning CVD from medical records. Descriptive and multilevel regression analyses were conducted. In 45 primary care practices with 106 physicians in the Netherlands, 1614 medical records of patients with CVD (37.9% women) were reviewed. A total of 1076 (66.7%) patients had recorded CVD only (reference group); 7.8% had CVD and COPD; 22.4% had CVD and DM; 3.1% patients had CVD, COPD and DM. Compared with the reference group, patients with CVD and DM yielded higher scores on 17 of 20 indicators; patients with CVD, DM and COPD on 14 indicators; and patients with CVD and COPD on three indicators. Of the patients with CVD and DM, fewer patients had LDL-cholesterol levels over 2.5 mmol÷l (OR=0.36; 95% CI 0.26-0.50), more had antiplatelet drugs prescribed (OR=1.72; 95% CI 1.17-2.54), and more had systolic blood pressure measurement (OR=4.12; 95% CI 2.80-6.06). Conclusions: This study showed that DM but not COPD was associated with more comprehensive cardiovascular risk management. This finding adds to cumulating evidence that presence of DM is associated with better preventive treatment of cardiovascular risk.
    The Netherlands Journal of Medicine 09/2012; 70(7):298-305. · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Comorbidity in patients with diabetes is associated with poorer health and increased cost. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and ingredient cost of comorbidity in patients ≥ 65 years with and without medication treated type 2 diabetes using a national pharmacy claims database. Methods The Irish Health Service Executive Primary Care Reimbursement Service pharmacy claims database, which includes all prescribing to individuals covered by the General Medical Services scheme, was used to identify the study population (≥ 65 years). Patients with medication treated type 2 diabetes (T2DM) were identified using the prescription of oral anti-hyperglycaemic agents alone or in combination with insulin as a proxy for disease diagnosis. The prevalence and ingredient prescribing cost of treated chronic comorbidity in the study population with and without medication treated T2DM were ascertained using a modified version of the RxRiskV index, a prescription based comorbidity index. The association between T2DM and comorbid conditions was assessed using logistic regression adjusting for age and sex. Bootstrapping was used to ascertain the mean annual ingredient cost of treated comorbidity. Statistical significance at p < 0.05 was assumed. Results In 2010, 43165 of 445180 GMS eligible individuals (9.7%) were identified as having received medication for T2DM. The median number of comorbid conditions was significantly higher in those with T2DM compared to without (median 5 vs. 3 respectively; p < 0.001). Individuals with T2DM were more likely to have ≥ 5 comorbidities when compared to those without (OR = 2.82, 95% CI = 2.76-2.88, p < 0.0001). The mean annual ingredient cost for comorbidity was higher in the study population with T2DM (€1238.67, 95% CI = €1238.20 - €1239.14) compared to those without the condition (€799.28, 95% CI = €799.14 - € 799.41). Conclusions Individuals with T2DM were more likely to have a higher number of treated comorbid conditions than those without and this was associated with higher ingredient costs. This has important policy and economic consequences for the planning and provision of future health services in Ireland, given the expected increase in T2DM and other chronic conditions.
    BMC Health Services Research 01/2013; 13(1):23. DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-13-23 · 1.66 Impact Factor