Species Association of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) in Non-Human Apes; Evidence for Recombination between Gorilla and Chimpanzee Variants

Centre for Immunology, Infection and Evolution, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 03/2012; 7(3):e33430. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033430
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are widely distributed in humans, infecting approximately one third of the world's population. HBV variants have also been detected and genetically characterised from Old World apes; Gorilla gorilla (gorilla), Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee), Pongo pygmaeus (orang-utan), Nomascus nastusus and Hylobates pileatus (gibbons) and from the New World monkey, Lagothrix lagotricha (woolly monkey). To investigate species-specificity and potential for cross species transmission of HBV between sympatric species of apes (such as gorillas and chimpanzees in Central Africa) or between humans and chimpanzees or gorillas, variants of HBV infecting captive wild-born non-human primates were genetically characterised. 9 of 62 chimpanzees (11.3%) and two from 11 gorillas (18%) were HBV-infected (15% combined frequency), while other Old world monkey species were negative. Complete genome sequences were obtained from six of the infected chimpanzee and both gorillas; those from P. t .ellioti grouped with previously characterised variants from this subspecies. However, variants recovered from P. t. troglodytes HBV variants also grouped within this clade, indicative of transmission between sub-species, forming a paraphyletic clade. The two gorilla viruses were phylogenetically distinct from chimpanzee and human variants although one showed evidence for a recombination event with a P.t.e.-derived HBV variant in the partial X and core gene region. Both of these observations provide evidence for circulation of HBV between different species and sub-species of non-human primates, a conclusion that differs from the hypothesis if of strict host specificity of HBV genotypes.

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Available from: Cyrille F. Djoko, Sep 27, 2015
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    • "This result has important implications for human health. Evidence of homologous recombination has been detected in a wide array of microbes, including many pathogens linked to human health concerns such as strains of influenza (He et al. 2008, 2012), hepatitis (Wang et al. 2010; Lyons et al. 2012), rabies virus (Liu et al. 2011), dengue (Su et al. 2011), and HIV (Rigby et al. 2009; Motomura et al. 2008; Ssemwanga et al. 2011). Given, the strongly beneficial role that we show recombination can play in molecular evolution, understanding the forces shaping the success or failure of recombinants is critical to any attempt to predict the potential outcomes of hybridization events, and this is especially crucial in the case of microbes globally affecting public health. "
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    ABSTRACT: The success or failure of hybrids and the factors that determine their fitness have ecological, evolutionary, medical, and economic implications. Hybrid fitness is a major determinant of the size of hybrid zones and the maintenance of related species with overlapping ranges. It also influences the evolution of emerging pathogens and the success of economically important crop species experimentally hybridized in search of strains with increased yields or disease resistance. Hybrid fitness may largely be determined by the pervasiveness of epistasis in the genome, as epistasis is known to debilitate hybrids through disrupted inter- and intragenic interactions. We identified two bacteriophages isolated from their natural environment, one the result of a past hybridization event involving an ancestor of the other phage and a third, unknown phage. By performing a reciprocal cross of the affected region of the genome, consisting of a single complete gene, we both approximately recreated and reversed this original hybridization event in two chimeric bacteriophage genomes. Subsequent adaptation of the hybrid phages allowed for the recovery of fitness losses incurred by the hybrid genotypes. Furthermore, adaptation led to the ascension of a substantially higher and previously inaccessible adaptive peak. We show that by allowing genotypes to take large leaps across the adaptive landscape rather than single mutational steps, hybridization can lead to huge long-term fitness gains in spite of short-term costs resulting from disrupted epistatic interactions, demonstrating that the success or failure of hybrids may be determined not by their initial fitness, but rather by their adaptive potential.
    Journal of Molecular Evolution 09/2013; 77(5-6). DOI:10.1007/s00239-013-9586-8 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    • "However, it is a limitation in our current study that this approach is not capable of indentifying historical recombination events in HBV genome. Fortunately, several publications have reported some progress in this field [14-16,27-31]. Evolutionary history of HBV genome recombination will possibly be clarified in details in future although rigorous improvements of analysis tools are necessary. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an important infectious agent that causes widespread concern because billions of people are infected by at least 8 different HBV genotypes worldwide. However, reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationship between HBV genotypes is difficult. Specifically, the phylogenetic relationships among genotypes A, B, and C are not clear from previous studies because of the confounding effects of genotype recombination. In order to clarify the evolutionary relationships, a rigorous approach is required that can effectively explore genetic sequences with recombination. Result In the present study, phylogenetic relationship of the HBV genotypes was reconstructed using a consensus phylogeny of phylogenetic trees of HBV genome segments. Reliability of the reconstructed phylogeny was extensively evaluated in agreements of local phylogenies of genome segments. The reconstructed phylogenetic tree revealed that HBV genotypes B and C had a closer phylogenetic relationship than genotypes A and B or A and C. Evaluations showed the consensus method was capable to reconstruct reliable phylogenetic relationship in the presence of recombinants. Conclusion The consensus method implemented in this study provides an alternative approach for reconstructing reliable phylogenetic relationships for viruses with possible genetic recombination. Our approach revealed the phylogenetic relationships of genotypes A, B, and C of HBV.
    BMC Evolutionary Biology 06/2013; 13(1):120. DOI:10.1186/1471-2148-13-120 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sequencing of the complete hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomes from Vietnam, China and Laos led to the identification of a complex recombinant, referred to initially as an aberrant genotype and later proposed to be a new genotype, I. However, epidemiological data regarding this new genotype are lacking. A cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the epidemiology of HBV candidate genotype I in Guangxi, China using stratified, random cluster sampling. Four thousand five hundred thirteen subjects were recruited from five counties within Guangxi. Three genotypes, B, C, and I, were identified with a prevalence of 32.6% (114/350), 64% (224/350), and 3.4% (12/350), respectively. All the genotype I isolates belong to candidate subgenotype I1 and were found in Bing Yang (15.3%, 9/59) and Na Po (5.0%, 3/60) counties only. The prevalence of this subgenotype is significantly higher in males (5.1%, 10/195) than in females (1.3%, 2/155; X(2) = 3.959, P < 0.05) but does not differ significantly with age. It was found in the Han (4.5%, 9/201) and Zhuang (3.1%, 3/97) ethnic populations only. There is no significant difference from other genotypes in the prevalence of HBV serological markers. Phylogeographic analysis revealed that genotype I1 likely arose in Long An county, then spread later to Bing Yang, Na Po counties and elsewhere in southeast Asia. In conclusion, the distribution of candidate genotype I within Guangxi is not even and it is highly endemic in some counties. Its prevalence is associated with gender and ethnicity. Subgenotype I1 likely originated in Long An county. J. Med. Virol. 85:799-807, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Medical Virology 05/2013; 85(5):799-807. DOI:10.1002/jmv.23533 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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