Dopamine-derived quinones affect the structure of the redox sensor DJ-1 through modifications at Cys-106 and Cys-53.
ABSTRACT The physiological role of DJ-1, a protein involved in familial Parkinson disease is still controversial. One of the hypotheses proposed indicates a sensor role for oxidative stress, through oxidation of a conserved cysteine residue (Cys-106). The association of DJ-1 mutations with Parkinson disease suggests a loss of function, specific to dopaminergic neurons. Under oxidative conditions, highly reactive dopamine quinones (DAQs) can be produced, which can modify cysteine residues. In cellular models, DJ-1 was found covalently modified by dopamine. We analyzed the structural modifications induced on human DJ-1 by DAQs in vitro. We described the structural perturbations induced by DAQ adduct formation on each of the three cysteine residues of DJ-1 using specific mutants. Cys-53 is the most reactive residue and forms a covalent dimer also in SH-SY5Y DJ-1-transfected cells, but modification of Cys-106 induces the most severe structural perturbations; Cys-46 is not reactive. The relevance of these covalent modifications to the several functions ascribed to DJ-1 is discussed in the context of the cell response to a dopamine-derived oxidative insult.
- Science 06/2004; 304(5674):1120-2. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have examined the biochemical and histological effects of high concentrations of dopamine (0.05-1.0 micromol) injected into the rat striatum. Twenty-four hours after such injections, the oxidation products of dopamine and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid were detected as both free and protein-bound cysteinyl dopamine and cysteinyl dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Protein-bound cysteinyl catechols were increased 7- to 20-fold above control tissue levels. By 7 days postinjection, the protein-bound cysteinyl catechols were still detectable, although reduced in concentration, whereas the free forms could no longer be measured. Histological examination of striatum at 7 days revealed a central core of nonspecific damage including neuronal loss and gliosis. This core was surrounded by a region containing a marked reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity but no apparent loss of serotonin or synaptophysin immunoreactivity. When dopamine was injected with an equimolar concentration of either ascorbic acid or glutathione, the formation of protein-bound cysteinyl catechols was greatly reduced. Moreover, the specific loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity associated with dopamine injections was no longer detectable, although the nonspecific changes in cytoarchitecture were still apparent. Thus, following its oxidation, dopamine in high concentrations binds to protein in the striatum, an event that is correlated with the specific loss of dopaminergic terminals. We suggest that the selective degeneration of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease may be caused by an imbalance between the oxidation of dopamine and the availability of antioxidant defenses.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/1996; 93(5):1956-61. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prediction of small molecule binding modes to macromolecules of known three-dimensional structure is a problem of paramount importance in rational drug design (the "docking" problem). We report the development and validation of the program GOLD (Genetic Optimisation for Ligand Docking). GOLD is an automated ligand docking program that uses a genetic algorithm to explore the full range of ligand conformational flexibility with partial flexibility of the protein, and satisfies the fundamental requirement that the ligand must displace loosely bound water on binding. Numerous enhancements and modifications have been applied to the original technique resulting in a substantial increase in the reliability and the applicability of the algorithm. The advanced algorithm has been tested on a dataset of 100 complexes extracted from the Brookhaven Protein DataBank. When used to dock the ligand back into the binding site, GOLD achieved a 71% success rate in identifying the experimental binding mode.Journal of Molecular Biology 05/1997; 267(3):727-48. · 3.91 Impact Factor