MiR-145 modulates multiple components of the insulin-like growth factor pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma.
ABSTRACT Profiling of microRNA expression in human cancers has highlighted downregulation of miR-145 as a common event in epithelial malignancies. Here, we describe recurrent underexpression of miR-145 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the identification of a biological pathway by which miR-145 exerts its functional effects in liver tumorigenesis. In a cohort of 80 HCC patients, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction corroborated reduced miR-145 expression in 50% of tumors, which also correlated with a shorter disease-free survival of patients. One HCC tumor analyzed with low endogenous miR-145 was propagated as cell line. This in vitro model HKCI-C2 maintained low miR-145 level and upon restoration of miR-145 expression, a consistent inhibitory effect on cell viability and proliferation was readily found. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that miR-145 re-expression could induce G(2)-M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Multiple in silico algorithms predicted that miR-145 could target a number of genes along the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling, including insulin receptor substrate (IRS1)-1, IRS2 and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor. We found protein expression of these putative targets was concordantly downregulated in the presence of miR-145. Luciferase reporter assay further verified direct target association of miR-145 to specific sites of the IRS1 and IRS2 3'-untranslated regions. Subsequent analysis also affirmed miR-145 modulation on the IGF signaling cascade by reducing its downstream mediator, namely the active β-catenin level. Taken together, our study shows for the first time the pleiotropic effect of miR-145 in targeting multiple components of the oncogenic IGF signaling pathway in HCC.
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ABSTRACT: The prognosis of patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often dismal mainly due to late presentation, high recurrence rate and the disease's resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Accumulating evidence on the differential microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns between non-tumor and HCC or liver cancer stem cells (CSC) and non-CSC subsets, and their significant clinical implications, has suggested miRNA to be a promising, non-invasive marker for the prognosis and diagnosis of the disease. This perspective article provides a summary of the current knowledge of miRNAs in liver CSCs and points to the need of further investigating the role of miRNAs in regulating liver CSC subsets for possible future clinical applications.Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer 05/2013;
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ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. Different signalling pathways have been identified to be implicated in the pathogenesis of HCC; among these, GH, IGF and somatostatin (SST) pathways have emerged as some of the major pathways implicated in the development of HCC. Physiologically, GH-IGF-SST system plays a crucial role in liver growth and development since GH induces IGF1 and IGF2 secretion and the expression of their receptors, involved in hepatocytes cell proliferation, differentiation and metabolism. On the other hand, somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) are exclusively present on the biliary tract. Importantly, the GH-IGF-SST system components have been indicated as regulators of hepatocarcinogenesis. Reduction of GH binding affinity to GH receptor, decreased serum IGF1 and increased serum IGF2 production, overexpression of IGF1 receptor, loss of function of IGF2 receptor and appearance of SSTRs are frequently observed in human HCC. In particular, recently, many studies have evaluated the correlation between increased levels of IGF1 receptors and liver diseases and the oncogenic role of IGF2 and its involvement in angiogenesis, migration and, consequently, in tumour progression. SST directly or indirectly influences tumour growth and development through the inhibition of cell proliferation and secretion and induction of apoptosis, even though SST role in hepatocarcinogenesis is still opened to argument. This review addresses the present evidences suggesting a role of the GH-IGF-SST system in the development and progression of HCC, and describes the therapeutic perspectives, based on the targeting of GH-IGF-SST system, which have been hypothesised and experimented in HCC.Infectious Agents and Cancer 01/2014; 9:27.
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ABSTRACT: The POU transcription factor OCT4 is a pleiotropic regulator of gene expression in embryonic stem cells. Recent studies demonstrated that OCT4 is aberrantly expressed in multiple types of human cancer; however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we report that OCT4-pg4, a pseudogene of OCT4, is abnormally activated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The expression level of OCT4-pg4 is positively correlated with that of OCT4, and both gene transcripts can be directly targeted by a tumor-suppressive microRNA miR-145. We find that the non-coding RNA OCT4-pg4 is biologically active, as it can up-regulate OCT4 protein level in HCC. Mechanistic analysis revealed that OCT4-pg4 functions as a natural microRNA sponge to protect OCT4 transcript from being inhibited by miR-145. In addition, our study also showed that OCT4-pg4 can promote growth and tumorigenicity of HCC cells, thus exerting an oncogenic role in hepatocarcinogenesis. Furthermore, survival analysis suggests that high OCT4-pg4 level is significantly correlated with poor prognosis of HCC patients. Taken together, our finding adds a new layer of post-transcriptional regulation of OCT4, and sheds new light on the treatment of human HCC.Carcinogenesis 04/2013; · 5.64 Impact Factor