Article

High-throughput genotoxicity assay identifies antioxidants as inducers of DNA damage response and cell death

Genome Instability Section, Genetics and Molecular Biology Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 03/2012; 109(14):5423-8. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1114278109
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Human ATAD5 is a biomarker for identifying genotoxic compounds because ATAD5 protein levels increase posttranscriptionally in response to DNA damage. We screened over 4,000 compounds with a cell-based quantitative high-throughput ATAD5-luciferase assay detecting genotoxic compounds. We identified 22 antioxidants, including resveratrol, genistein, and baicalein, that are currently used or investigated for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, osteopenia, osteoporosis, and chronic hepatitis, as well as for antiaging. Treatment of dividing cells with these compounds induced DNA damage and resulted in cell death. Despite their genotoxic effects, resveratrol, genistein, and baicalein did not cause mutagenesis, which is a major side effect of conventional anticancer drugs. Furthermore, resveratrol and genistein killed multidrug-resistant cancer cells. We therefore propose that resveratrol, genistein, and baicalein are attractive candidates for improved chemotherapeutic agents.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Raymond R Tice, Jul 01, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
194 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In vitro genotoxicity tests used in regulatory toxicology studies are sensitive, but the occurrence of irrelevant positive results is high compared with carcinogenicity studies in rodents. Current in vitro genotoxicity tests are also often limited by relatively low throughput. The aim of this study was to validate an in vitro genotoxic assay in a 96-well plate format that allows the simultaneous examination of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. The test is based on the quantification of the phosphorylation of the histone H2AX (γH2AX), which reflects a global genotoxic insult, using the In-Cell Western technique. The assay was evaluated on HepG2 cells by testing a list of 61 compounds recommended by the European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), whose genotoxic potential has already been characterized. The γH2AX assay on HepG2 cell line was highly sensitive: 75% of the genotoxic compounds gave a positive result, and specific: 90-100% of nongenotoxic compounds gave negative results. Compared with the micronucleus genotoxicity assay using the same cell line and test compounds, the γH2AX assay was more sensitive and specific. In sum, the high-throughput γH2AX assay described here can accurately detect simultaneously the genotoxic and the cytotoxic potential of compounds with different modes of mutagenic action, notably those who required metabolic activation. The use of this assay in the early discovery phase of drug development may prove to be a valuable way to assess the genotoxic potential of xenobiotics. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 00:000-000, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 12/2013; 54(9). DOI:10.1002/em.21817 · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Some phytochemicals with the characteristics of cytotoxicity and/or antimetastasis have generated intense interest among the anticancer studies. In this study, a natural flavonoid baicalein was evaluated in bladder cancer in vitro and in vivo. Baicalein inhibits 5637 cell proliferation. It arrests cells in G1 phase at 100 μ M and in S phase below 75 μ M. The protein expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin D1 is reduced by baicalein. Baicalein-induced p-ERK plays a minor role in cyclin B1 reduction. Baicalein-inhibited p65NF- κ B results in reduction of cell growth. Baicalein-induced pGSK(ser9) has a little effect in increasing cyclin B1/D1 expression instead. The translation inhibitor cycloheximide blocks baicalein-reduced cyclin B1, suggesting that the reduction is caused by protein synthesis inhibition. On the other hand, neither cycloheximide nor proteasome inhibitor MG132 completely blocks baicalein-reduced cyclin D1, suggesting that baicalein reduces cyclin D1 through protein synthesis inhibition and proteasomal degradation activation. In addition, baicalein also inhibits cell invasion by inhibiting MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA expression and activity. In mouse orthotopic bladder tumor model, baicalein slightly reduces tumor size but with some hepatic toxicity. In summary, these results demonstrate the anti-bladder-tumor properties of the natural compound baicalein which shows a slight anti-bladder-tumor effect in vivo.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 03/2013; 2013:579751. DOI:10.1155/2013/579751 · 1.88 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases ranging from cancer to neurodegeneration, highlighting the need to identify chemicals that can induce this effect. The antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway plays an important role in the amelioration of oxidative stress. Thus, assays that detect the up-regulation of this pathway could be useful for identifying chemicals that induce oxidative stress. Objectives: We used cell-based reporter methods and informatics tools to efficiently screen a large collection of environmental chemicals and identify compounds that induce oxidative stress. Methods: We utilized two cell-based ARE assay reporters, β-lactamase and luciferase, to screen a U.S. National Toxicology Program 1,408-compound library (NTP 1408, which contains 1,340 unique compounds) for their ability to induce oxidative stress in HepG2 cells using quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS). Results: Roughly 3% (34 of 1,340) of the unique compounds demonstrated activity across both cell-based assays. Based on biological activity and structure–activity relationship profiles, we selected 50 compounds for retesting in the two ARE assays and in an additional follow-up assay that employed a mutated ARE linked to β-lactamase. Using this strategy, we identified 30 compounds that demonstrated activity in the ARE-bla and ARE-luc assays and were able to determine structural features conferring compound activity across assays. Conclusions: Our results support the robustness of using two different cell-based approaches for identifying compounds that induce ARE signaling. Together, these methods are useful for prioritizing chemicals for further in-depth mechanism-based toxicity testing.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 05/2012; 120(8):1150-6. DOI:10.1289/ehp.1104709 · 7.03 Impact Factor