High-throughput genotoxicity assay identifies
antioxidants as inducers of DNA damage
response and cell death
Jennifer T. Foxa, Srilatha Sakamurub, Ruili Huangb, Nedelina Tenevaa, Steven O. Simmonsc, Menghang Xiab,
Raymond R. Ticed, Christopher P. Austinb, and Kyungjae Myunga,1
aGenome Instability Section, Genetics and Molecular Biology Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, andbNational Center for Advancing
Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892;cIntegrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects
Research Laboratory, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; anddDivision of the National Toxicology Program,
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709
Edited by Richard D. Kolodner, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, La Jolla, CA, and approved February 16, 2012 (received for review August 30, 2011)
Human ATAD5 is a biomarker for identifying genotoxic compounds
because ATAD5 protein levels increase posttranscriptionally in re-
sponse to DNA damage. We screened over 4,000 compounds with a
cell-based quantitative high-throughput ATAD5-luciferase assay
detecting genotoxic compounds. We identified 22 antioxidants,
including resveratrol, genistein, and baicalein, that are currently
used or investigated for the treatment of cardiovascular disease,
type 2 diabetes, osteopenia, osteoporosis, and chronic hepatitis, as
well as for antiaging. Treatment of dividing cells with these
their genotoxic effects, resveratrol, genistein, and baicalein did not
cause mutagenesis, which is a major side effect of conventional
anticancer drugs. Furthermore, resveratrol and genistein killed
multidrug-resistant cancer cells. We therefore propose that resvera-
trol, genistein, and baicalein are attractive candidates for improved
division that requires DNA replication. This feature is often
exploited to develop chemotherapeutic drugs because cancer cells
are exquisitely sensitive to the inhibition of DNA replication by the
DNA lesions resulting from exposure to genotoxic agents stall
DNA replication, collapse replication forks, and produce DNA
properly, many of these genomic insults can also induce gene
mutations or chromosomal alterations that may make cells more
resilient to cell-cycle checkpoints or apoptosis. Thus, cancer treat-
that kill rapidly dividing cells with minimal mutagenic side effects.
ATAD5 is the homolog of yeast Enhanced Level of Genome
Instability Gene 1 (ELG1), which makes a heteropentameric al-
ternative replication factor C complex and suppresses genomic
instability and tumorigenesis (1–3). ATAD5 plays a key role in
the translesion synthesis (TLS) pathway where TLS polymerases
are used to bypass DNA lesions that stall or collapse DNA rep-
lication forks (4, 5). In the TLS pathway, switching from replica-
tive polymerases to TLS polymerases is promoted through the
interaction between proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)
monoubiquitylated at lysine 164 and an ubiquitin-binding motif in
TLS polymerases, a mechanism that is conserved from yeast to
humans(6).ATAD5 is stabilized and forms nuclearfoci at thesite
of stalled replication forks in response to DNA damage (7) and
appears to participate in theremovalof ubiquitin from chromatin-
bound monoubiquitylated PCNA through its interaction with
ubiquitin-specific peptidase 1 (5). The ATAD5-mediated deubi-
quitylation of PCNA allows lesion-bypassed TLS polymerases to
switch back to replicative polymerases, and thereby prevents the
ne distinctive characteristic of cancer cells is persistent cell
low-fidelity TLS polymerases from causing harmful mutations or
collapsed replication forks.
Because ATAD5 is stabilized in response to various types of
DNA damage, we reasoned that we could identify genotoxic
libraries by monitoring ATAD5 protein levels. The results of our
screen not only validated our hypothesis, but also revealed several
antioxidants as promising chemotherapeutic agents. Three of
these antioxidants, resveratrol, baicalein, and genistein, kill rap-
idly dividing cells without producing the potentially deadly side-
effects of chromosomal alterations and mutagenesis, and thus are
potentially better chemotherapeutic agents than ones currently
used for cancer treatment.
Development of a High-Throughput ATAD5-Luciferase Assay. To iden-
tify compounds that enhance human ATAD5 protein levels, we
created an HEK293T cell line that stably expresses luciferase-
tagged ATAD5 (Fig. 1 A–C). Like native ATAD5 (7), the level of
the ATAD5-luciferase fusion protein (ATAD5-luc), as monitored
by Western blot, as well as the measurement of luciferase activity,
was increased following treatment with the DNA alkylating agent,
methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), in a dose-dependent manner
(Fig. 1 C and D). ATAD5-luc formed DNA damage-induced nu-
clear foci following treatment with MMS and UV (Fig. S1A),
similar to the native ATAD5 protein, and could complement the
PCNA deubiquitylation defect observed upon ATAD5 knockdown
(5) (Fig. S1 B and C) Expression of ATAD5-luc did not affect the
DNA damage response in HEK293T cells, as evidenced by similar
levels of cisplatin-induced TLS polymerase foci in the ATAD5-luc
cell line compared with the unmodified cell line (Fig. S1D).
After optimizing the ATAD5-luc assay in a 1,536-well plate
format (Fig. S2) (signal-to-background ratio = 5.6, coefficient of
variation = 7.3%, and Z factor = 0.74), we screened 4,156 mol-
ecules from the compound collections of the National Toxicology
Program (NTP, see http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=
pcsubstance&term=NTPHTS for the complete list of com-
pounds) and Tocris Biosciences (TB, see Table S1 for the com-
plete list ofcompounds)ina quantitativehigh-throughputmanner
using at least seven different concentrations of each compound
Author contributions: J.T.F. and K.M. designed research; J.T.F., S.S., R.H., N.T., S.O.S., and
K.M. performed research; R.H., S.O.S., M.X., R.R.T., C.P.A., and K.M. contributed new
reagents/analytic tools; J.T.F., R.H., M.X., R.R.T., and K.M. analyzed data; and J.T.F. and
K.M. wrote the paper.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
This article is a PNAS Direct Submission.
Freely available online through the PNAS open access option.
1To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: email@example.com.
This article contains supporting information online at www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.
| April 3, 2012
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(Table S2). Between these two collections, 99 compounds(53 from
TB, 42 from NTP, and 4 from both libraries)were considered to be
positive hits because they displayed >40% of the activity of the
MMS control, which corresponds to at least a twofold increase in
luciferase activity compared with DMSO treatment (Fig. 1E and
inhibitors, GABA receptor agonists, polyphenols/antioxidants,
channel blockers, seratonin receptor antagonists, metabalotropic
glutamate receptor 5 antagonists, histone deacetylase inhibitors,
and heavy metals (Fig. 1E and Table S3). At least one compound
from each group in Table S3 (60 in total) was randomly selected
and retested in the ATAD5-luc assay to evaluate the screen. Of
these compounds, 56 (93%) enhanced ATAD5-luc activity in the
evaluation (Fig. S3A and Table S3). The correlation coefficient
between the log of the EC50values obtained from the screen and
those obtained during the evaluation was 0.83. Because direct
stabilizers of luciferase can generate a false-positive signal in luci-
ferase-based screens (8), we also tested these 56 compounds for
their ability to stabilize FLAG-tagged ATAD5 at the protein level.
Of the selected compounds, 51 (91%) stabilized the FLAG-A-
TAD5 protein (Fig. S3B and Table S3).
Manypositive hitsfromtheATAD5-luc screenhavebeenreported
to negatively affect genomic integrity by a variety of molecular
mechanisms (Table S3, column 4). Twenty-four of the 51 com-
genotoxins by several standard genotoxicity assays, including the
Salmonella typhimurium reverse-mutation assay, the hypoxanthine-
guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) assay, the mouse lym-
phoma thymidinekinaseassay,a test forchromosomal aberrations,
and a micronucleus assay (Fig. 1F and Table S4) [data obtained
from the Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System
(http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?CCRIS), the NTP
(http://ntp-apps.niehs.nih.gov/ntp_tox/index.cfm), and Leadscope
toxicity databases]. Twenty-five additional compounds produced
other DNA damage responses, including changes in the level of
chromatin-bound ubiquitylated PCNA, and the phosphorylation of
RPA32, CHK1, ATM, and H2AX in HEK293T cells, as detected
by Western blotting (Figs. 1F and 2A, Fig. S4, and Table S4). In
total, 49 (96%) of 51 compounds selected from the ATAD5-luc
screen were positive for genotoxicity in an independent assay.
More than 20% of the positive hits from the ATAD5-luc screen
were small molecules classified as polyphenols and antioxidants
(Fig. 1E and Table S3). We should point out, though, that not all
polyphenols/antioxidants present in the chemical libraries were
active in the ATAD5-luc assay. For example, kaempferol, myr-
to stabilize ATAD5-luc. However, given the predominance of the
polyphenols/antioxidants, we decided to investigate the nature of
the genotoxicities induced by these compounds as well as their
based on the observation that treatment with
DNA damaging agents results in an increase in
ATAD5 protein levels. Genotoxic compounds
can be identified by monitoring their effect on
luciferase activity in the ATAD5-luc cell line. (B)
Protocol for compound screening in a 1,536-well
plate format. The red and green represent cells
that display an increase and decrease in ATAD5-
luc activity, respectively, following treatment
with a chemical. (C) The expression of the
ATAD5-luc fusion protein was increased after
a 16-h incubation with 295 μM MMS. (D) Lucif-
erase activity was increased in response to a 16-
h incubation with MMS in a dose-dependent
manner. (E) The 99 positive hits grouped by
cellular function. (F) Of the 51 positive hits that
were evaluated, 24 (47%) had previously been
identified as genotoxins by the S. typhimurium
reverse-mutation assay, the HPRT assay, the
mouse lymphoma thymidine kinase assay, a test
for chromosomal aberrations, and a micronu-
cleus assay. Twenty-five (49%) had not been
thoroughly tested in standard genotoxicity
assays, but were found to induce a DNA damage
response and are thus classified as newly iden-
tified genotoxins. Two compounds (4%) did not
induce a DNA damage response.
The ATAD5-luc assay. (A) The assay is
| www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1114278109Fox et al.
chemotherapeutic potential. Six compounds were selected based
on the different structure subgroups to which they belong and
whether or not they have been reported to exhibit antioxidant
activity. 2-Aminoanthraquinone is an anthraquinone and exhibits
no antioxidant activity; the stilbene resveratrol, the flavone bai-
calein, and the isoflavones daidzein and genistein all have some
degree of antioxidant activity; and N-phenyl-2-napthylamine,
which is not a polyphenol, is used as an industrial antioxidant.
First, these compounds were tested for their ability to induce
breaks in DNA. Treatment with all compounds increased the
fraction ofcells havingmore than10 chromatidbreaks (Fig. 2B and
Fig. S5A). Treatment with genistein and resveratrol resulted in
a significant induction of a DSB marker, H2AX phosphorylation
(Fig. 2A), and the level of DSBs induced by genistein treatment
could also be observed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (Fig. 2C
and Fig. S5B). Second, we investigated the DNA damage response
upon treatment with these compounds. N-phenyl-2-napthylamine,
daidzein, and 2-aminoanthraquinone were mild inducersofa DNA
damage response. Treatment with these three compounds moder-
Fanconi anemia complementation group D type 2 (FANCD2)
ubiquitylation or the phosphorylation of RPA32 or CHK1 (Fig.
2A). These compounds also increased the number of TLS poly-
merse Polη foci in cells approximately threefold compared with the
DMSO control (Fig. 2D and Fig. S5C). Resveratrol and baicalein
induced a robust DNA damage response. Both compounds caused
significant increases in PCNA and FANCD2 ubiquitylation as well
as RPA32 and CHK1 phosphorylation (Fig. 2A). These two com-
pounds also resulted in approximately six times the number of TLS
polymerse Polη foci compared with the DMSO control (Fig. 2D
and Fig. S5C). Genistein treatment resulted in a significant de-
crease in the amount of unmodified and ubiquitylated PCNA
bound to chromatin and induced a high level of CHK1 phosphor-
ylation (Fig. 2A). Finally, all six compounds were tested for their
effects oncell-cycle progression (Fig.2E). The inducers ofthemost
robust DNA damage response, resveratrol and biacalein, increased
the percentage of cells in G1 after a 16-h treatment. After 24 h,
resveratrol-treated cells remained in G1, whereas baicalein-treated
oxidants (the concentration that produced the greatest increase in luciferase activity in the evaluation) or 10 μM cisplatin for 16 h, or 1.18 mM MMS for 1 h
followed by a 5-h recovery. The level of the indicated proteins was determined by Western blot analysis using either the chromatin-bound fraction or total cell
lysate. (B) The percentage of HEK293T metaphase cells containing the indicated number of chromatid breaks following treatment as described in A was
determined in at least 50 metaphases per treatment. (C) HEK293T cells were treated as described in A, and DNA DSBs were visualized by pulsed-field gel
electrophoresis. The intensity of the smear produced by DNA containing DSBs was quantified using ImageJ and normalized to the DMSO control. The graph
represents the average of at least three independent experiments ± SD. (D) YFP-Polη foci were counted in at least 60 HEK293T cells after treatment with
92 μM polyphenols/antioxidants or 10 μM cisplatin for 16 h. (E) Cell-cycle profiles of HEK293T cells after treatment with 92 μM polyphenols/antioxidants,
1.18 mM MMS, or 10 μM cisplatin for the indicated times (Note: the times listed for MMS are recovery times following treatment for 1 h).
Polyphenols/antioxidants identified from the ATAD5-luc screen induce genotoxicity. (A) HEK293T cells were treated with 92 μM polyphenols/anti-
Fox et al. PNAS
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cells had progressed to S phase. N-phenyl-2-napthylamine, daid-
zein, and 2-aminoanthraquinone, which are inducers of a mild
DNA damage response, caused an increase in the population of
cells in S phase after a 16-h exposure. This effect was more drastic
when the cells were treated for 24 h. Treatment with genistein
caused a severe (70%) G2/M phase arrest.
Taken together, these data indicate that genistein-induced
S phase-specific DNA damage response. In contrast, N-phenyl-2-
napthylamine, daidzein, resveratrol, 2-aminoanthraquinone, and
baicalein most likely produce DNA lesions that stall the pro-
gression of the replication fork at different levels. This process, in
turn, affected the increase in the number of Polη nuclear foci in a
similar manner. Even though some previous reports have suggested
as pro-oxidants, intercalating into DNA, inhibiting topoisomerase,
and inhibiting DNA polymerase (Table S3, column 4) (9, 10), the
severity of the genotoxicities induced by resveratrol, baicalein, and
treatment with 92 μM resveratrol, baicalein, or genistein was com-
parable to that caused by treatment with the well-known genotoxins
MMS and cisplatin (Fig. 2). The potent genotoxicity of MMS and
cisplatin led to the successful use of these compounds to kill rapidly
dividing cancer cells (11). Therefore, resveratrol, baicalein, and
genistein could have chemotherapeutic potential.
Resveratrol and Genistein Selectively Kill Multidrug-Resistant Cancer
Cells. To investigate the chemotherapeuticpotential ofresveratrol,
baicalein, and genistein further, we tested their ability to selec-
tively kill KB-V1 cells. KB-V1 cells are derived from the human
KB-3-1 cell line and exhibit resistance to multiple anticancer
drugs, including colchicine, vincristine, vinblastine, adriamycin,
actinomycin D, and puromycin (12). Despite their multidrug-re-
sistance phenotype, KB-V1 cells were more sensitive than KB-3-1
cellsto resveratrol and genistein (Fig.3 A and B). Incontrast, both
cell lines exhibited a similar response to baicalein and MMS
treatment (Fig. 3 C and D).Thus, resveratroland genistein maybe
especially useful in treating cancers that have developed drug re-
sistance to conventional chemotherapeutic agents.
Resveratrol, Baicalein, and Genistein Are Not Mutagenic. A major
problem associated with conventional genotoxic chemothera-
peutic agents, such as cisplatin, is the induction of mutagenesis at
the chromosomal and nucleotide levels. Based on our observa-
tions that resveratrol, baicalein, and genistein are potent geno-
toxins, we hypothesized that these compounds might also produce
mutations similar to MMS or cisplatin. Surprisingly, in contrast to
the five- to sixfold increase in mutation frequency observed fol-
lowing treatment with either MMS or cisplatin, resveratrol, bai-
calein, and genistein did not increase mutagenesis in the SupF
plasmid mutagenesis assay, even though the doses of these com-
pounds were as cytotoxic as the doses of MMS and cisplatin used
in this study (Fig. 4A). Similarly, there were no significant
increases in the forward canavanine resistance mutagenesis fre-
quency in yeast (Fig. S6A) or in a bacterial reverse-mutation assay
(13). However, we need to point out that there are reports
showing a slight increase in HPRT mutagenesis after genistein
treatment (14, 15).
Polη, the defects of which cause a variant form of the skin
cancer-prone syndrome Xeroderma Pigmentosum (16, 17), can
bypass DNA damage in a fairly error-free fashion (17, 18).
Therefore, we hypothesized that the above results were because
of the Polη-dependent bypass of DNA lesions generated by
resveratrol and baicalein. Consistent with our hypothesis, we
observed the induction of mutagenesis by resveratrol and baica-
reduced by siRNA (Fig. 4A). Compared with MMS and cisplatin
treatments, treatment with resveratrol or baicalein also resulted
in significant Polη deubiquitylation (Fig. 2A and Fig. S6B), which
is necessary for the binding of Polη to monoubiquitylated PCNA
and subsequent activation of the polymerase (19). Therefore,
DNA lesions produced by resveratrol and baicalein appear to be
bypassed mainly by Polη in an error-free manner.
In contrast to MMS, resveratrol, baicalein, and genistein also
did not significantly increase the frequency of gross chromosomal
rearrangements (Fig. 4B) or recombination (Fig. 4C) in yeast,
even though the doses of all four compounds used in these assays
generated similar viabilities compared with the dose of MMS
used. Although one report showed the induction of sister chro-
matid exchanges by resveratrol in a Chinese hamster lung cell
line (13), there was no significant increase in sister chromatid
exchanges in retinal pigment epithelium cells following resvera-
trol treatment (Fig. S6C). Collectively, these data indicate that
although resveratrol, baicalein, and genistein inflict the same
amount of DNA damage and cause a similar level of cell death as
MMS and cisplatin, they do not cause serious genomic insta-
bilities either at the chromosomal or nucleotide levels, in con-
trast to MMS and cisplatin.
There are currently several high-throughput screening methods to
assess the genotoxicity of pharmaceutical and environmental
chemicals in vitro. However, it is difficult to determine the pos-
sible genotoxicity of chemicals with a single assay. Therefore, to
assess thegenotoxicity ofa compound accurately, it is necessary to
use a battery of diverse assays (20). In this study, we developed a
high-throughput ATAD5-luc assaythat will be a valuable addition
to this battery. The ATAD5-luc assay is very efficient both in time
and cost. It can be completed in less than 24 h, and because of the
miniaturization in a 1,536-well plate format, it requires only a
minimal volume of reagents and test chemicals. Above all, the
ATAD5-luc assay identifies genotoxins with a low false-positive
rate. More than 80% of the selected hits from the ATAD5-luc
The ATAD5-luc assay is not without its limitations, however.
Although many of the 1,408 compounds in the NTP library are
known or expected to be genotoxic, only 46 compounds from the
NTP collection enhanced ATAD5-luc activity >40% of the
MMS control, and another 139 compounds enhanced ATAD5-
luc activity <40% of the MMS control. Together, these 185 com-
pounds represent only 13% of the total. It is possible that the
following a 24-h treatment with 0–250 μM of (A) resveratrol, (B) genistein,
(C) baicalein, and (D) MMS. Viability was determined using CellTiter-Glo
immediately following treatment. The data represent the average of three
independent experiments ± SD.
Viability of multidrug resistant (KB-V1) and parental (KB-3-1) cells
| www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1114278109Fox et al.
cytotoxicity of the other 87% of the compounds precludes the
ability to measure their genotoxicity in vitro, or that the con-
centrations of some compounds applied to the ATAD5-luc assay
may not have been high enough to produce an effect. In addi-
tion, the HEK293T cells used for the ATAD5-luc assay lack any
appreciable xenobiotic-metabolizing activity, which is required
for some compounds to be genotoxic. All cell-based genotoxicity
assays share these limitations and consequently suffer in terms of
sensitivity. For example, when seven isogenic DNA repair-de-
ficient chicken DT40 cell lines were used to screen all 1,408
compounds from the NTP library, only 42 compounds (3%) were
identified as exhibiting possible genotoxic activity (21). Similarly,
when the GreenScreen HC GADD45a-GFP, CellCiphr p53, and
CellSensor p53-bla high-throughput genotoxicity assays were
used to screen a collection of 320 predominantly pesticide active
compounds being tested in phase I of the United States Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency’s ToxCast research project, only
10%, 9%, and 12% of the analyzed compounds, respectively,
were identified as positive hits (20). Thus, although the ATAD5-
luc assay fails to pick up many genotoxins, it is no less sensitive
than other cell-based assays that are currently available.
Among the compounds that the ATAD5-luc screen did iden-
tify from both the NTP and TB libraries were 22 polyphenols and
antioxidants. We verified that several of these compounds, in-
cluding resveratrol, genistein, and baicalein, are indeed potent
DNA damaging agents at concentrations of 92 μM. Although
Western blot analysis did not detect DNA damage responses to
concentrations of resveratrol, genistein, and baicalein that could be
obtained from oral dosing (2–5 μM) (Fig. S7A) (22, 23), the
ATAD5-luc assay identified these compounds as genotoxins at
concentrations as low as 2 μM (Fig. S7B). These findings were
surprising given that resveratrol and genistein are currently being
tested in clinical studies as treatments for cardiovascular disease,
type 2 diabetes, osteopenia, and osteoporosis (24, 25); resveratrol
is the major constituent of a Japanese herbal remedy for chronic
hepatitis (26). The genotoxicity caused by these compounds raises
concerns regarding their use for such conditions and suggests a
reevaluation of their safety.
Although the ability to induce DNA damage is not a favorable
quality for drugs used to treat the above-mentioned diseases, it is
the primary mechanism by which many conventional chemother-
apeutic agents act. Our findings thus raised the possibility that
drugs. In support of this hypothesis, resveratrol, baicalein, and
genistein have been reported to selectively kill cancer cells (27–
29), induce apoptosis (27, 29, 30), and reduce tumors in mice (31–
34),andresveratrolandgenisteinarecurrently inclinicaltrails for
the treatment of colon, breast, prostate, bladder, and pancreatic
cancers (www.clinicaltrials.gov). The data presented in this study
further add to the attractiveness of these compounds as chemo-
therapeutic agents because resveratrol, baicalein, and genistein
can kill rapidly dividing cells without causing potentially detri-
mental genomic instabilities. Additionally, resveratrol and genis-
tein can sensitize cells that have developed drug resistance to
conventional chemotherapeutic agents.
Collectively, we deliver several major health implications in this
study: (i) a re-evaluation of the safety of on-going clinical trials
that use resveratrol, genistein, and baicalein for the treatment or
prevention of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, osteopenia,
aging, and chronic hepatitis; (ii) a precaution for the unguided
medical use of antioxidants by the public; and (iii) an alternative,
but more efficient use of antioxidants for chemotherapy.
Materials and Methods
Generation of the ATAD5-luc Cell Line. The cDNA of human ATAD5 was
inserted in-frame downstream of the firefly luciferase gene in pTRED-CMV-
HA-Luc and named as pKJM1333. The recombinant lentivirus harboring the
siRNA weretreatedwith230μM resveratrol,baicalein,orgenisteinfor16h,10μMcisplatinfor16h,or1.18mMMMSfor1h.Mutationfrequencywasdetermined
as determined by the colony formation assay. The expression of Polη after siRNA knockdown was determined by Western blotting. (B) Log-phase cultures of
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (RDKY3615) were treated with 1 mM resveratrol, baicalein, or genistein, or 2.39 mM MMS for 4 h. Gross chromosomal rearrangement
(GCR)frequencywas determined bycounting coloniesresistanttocanavanineand 5-fluorooroticacid.Thefold-inductionofGCRfrequencywas normalizedtothe
DMSO control. (C) Log-phase cultures of S. cerevisiae (M136-11B) were treated as described in B, and the recombination frequency was determined by counting
colonies grown on a plate without histidine and normalized to the DMSO control. Each graph in A, B, and C represents the average of at least two experiments ±
SD. The numbers below the graph in B and C indicate the percentage of viable cells following treatment as determined by the yeast survival assay.
Resveratrol, baicalein,and genistein donot causemutagenesisor chromosomal rearrangements. (A) HEK293T cellstransfected with either controlor Polη
Fox et al.PNAS
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ATAD5-luciferase fusion gene (ATAD5-luc) was produced by transfecting
pKJM1333 as well as packaging plasmids expressing viral REV, GAG/POL, and
VSV-G proteins into HEK293T cells. Harvested lentivirus was then used to
transduce new HEK293T cells. Cells were harvested after a 2-d transduction
and plated at low density. Individual transduced HEK293T cell colonies were
picked and expression of the ATAD5-luc protein and the induction in the
level of the ATAD5-luc protein following treatment with MMS was tested by
both luciferase assay and Western blot analysis.
Quantitative High-Throughput Screening. Compound formatting and quanti-
tative high-throughput screening were performed as described previously (35,
36). ATAD5-luc cells were dispensed at 5 μL per well (~2,000 cells) in tissue cul-
America) using a Flying Reagent Dispenser (FRD) (Aurora Discovery) and then
incubated at 37 °C for ~5 h. Compound plates containing small molecules from
5–48 of 1,536-well compound plates. Next, 23 nL of each compound from the
compoundplates was transferred via pin tool (Kalypsys) to columns 5–48 of the
0.092 mM. As controls, a MMS concentration-response curve, 0.7 mM MMS, 0.6
plate, respectively. After compound addition, the assay plates were incubated
at 37 °C for 16 h. Next, 5 μL of the ONE-Glo luciferase reagent (Promega) was
then added to each well using the FRD. The luminescence intensity of the assay
plates was quantified using a ViewLux CCD-based plate reader (PerkinElmer)
after a 30-min incubation at room temperature. Raw plate reads for each ti-
tration point were normalized to MMS (0.7 mM = 100%) and DMSO (0%)
controls, and then corrected by applying a pattern-correction algorithm using
compound-free control plates (DMSO plates). Concentration-response titration
points for each compound were then fitted to the Hill equation.
Protein Analysis. HEK293T cells were grown in 10-cm tissue-culture plates to
~90%confluenceandtreated withvariouscompoundsas indicated. To obtain
total lysate, the cells were resuspended in lysis buffer [50 mM Tris, pH 7.5, 150
mM NaCl, 1% Nonidet P-40, 5 mM EDTA, protease inhibitors (Roche)] and
lysed on ice for 30 min. Chromatin-bound fractions were isolated as described
previously (5). Proteins in the total lysate or the chromatin-bound fraction
were separated by SDS-PAGE using a 4–15% Tris-glycine gel (Bio-Rad) and
transferred to a Polyvinylidene difluoride membrane. Proteins in the mem-
brane were detected by the ECL Western Blotting Detection System (GE
Healthcare). When necessary, membranes were stripped with Restore West-
ern Blot Stripping Buffer (Pierce). Mouse anti-luciferase, HRP-conjugated anti-
PCNA, mouse anti-CHK1 (G-4), mouse anti-ATM, and mouse anti-FANCD2
antibodies were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology. Rabbit anti-
phospho-RPA32 (S4/S8), and rabbit antiphospho-CHK1 (S317) antibodies were
purchased from Bethyl Laboratories. Rabbit anti-Polη, rabbit antihistone
H2AX, and HRP-conjugated anti–β-tubulin antibodies were purchased from
Abcam. Rabbit antihistone H3 antibody was purchased from Upstate. Mouse
anti-RPA32 (Ab-3) antibody was purchased from Calbiochem. Mouse anti-
phospho-histone H2AX (S140, 3F2) antibody was purchased from GeneTex.
Rabbit antiphospho-ATM (S1981) antibody was purchased from R&D Systems.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. We thank S. Anderson in the FACS core, A. Dutra in
the cytogenetics core, and D. Bodine, F. Candotti, P. Schwartzberg, and
Y. Yang of the National Human Genome Research Institute for helpful dis-
cussions and comments on the manuscript; M. Gottesman and C. Cardarelli of
the National Cancer Institute for cell lines; and K.M. especially thanks E. Cho.
This research was supported by the Intramural Research Programs (Inter-
agency Agreement Y2-ES-7020-01) of the National Toxicology Program, Na-
tional Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the National Human
Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, and by Grant R03
MH092164-01 (to K.M and M.X.).
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