IFN-γ and IP-10 in tracheal aspirates from premature infants: Relationship with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interferon-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10) are potent inflammatory mediators and contribute to acute lung injury in adults. Recently, a potential role for IFN-γ and IP-10 in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) has been reported in animal models. OBJECTIVE: To study the association between IFN-γ and IP-10 in tracheal aspirate (TA) and the development of BPD in premature infants. DESIGN/METHODS: TA samples collected within 48 hr after birth from 79 mechanically ventilated premature neonates [gestational age (GA) <30 weeks (w), birth weight (BW) <1,250 g (g)] were analyzed. IFN-γ was measured in a subgroup of 38 infants by using a biochip multi-analyte immunoassay. The level of IP-10 was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit. Total protein in TA was measured by Bradford assay to correct for sampling related dilution. BPD was defined as the need of supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). RESULTS: Twenty infants (GA 26.4 ± 1.9w, BW 860 ± 201 g) survived without BPD at 36 weeks PMA and 59 infants (GA 25.5 ± 1.5w, BW 751 ± 163 g) died before 36 weeks PMA or developed BPD. The mean IFN-γ level was higher in infants who died or developed BPD (9.7 ± 2.8 vs. 3.1 ± 1.1 pg/ml, P = 0.03). Similarly, the mean IP-10 level was higher in infants who died or developed BPD (63.4 ± 17.5 pg/ml) compared to those who survived without BPD (18.5 ± 7.5 pg/ml, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Higher IFN-γ and IP-10 levels in TA samples are associated with the development of BPD or death in premature infants. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) leukocyte-secreted cytokines are considered to be important mediators of the inflammatory and allergic reactions in the lung. This study examines quantitative changes in the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) production in BAL cell cultures derived from patients (n = 11) with bronchial asthma. The secretion of TNF alpha and IFN gamma was determined in intact (unstimulated) and phytohemagglutinin/phorbol myristate acetate (PHA + PMA)-stimulated BAL leukocyte cultures and compared with that in control cultures. In all patients studied, the background and PHA + PMA-induced secretion of TNF alpha and IFN gamma was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than that in parallel control cultures. In contrast to BAL cell preparations, the capacity of TNF alpha and IFN gamma secretion by patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) did not differ from that of control subjects. High spontaneous release of TNF alpha and IFN gamma by patients' BAL leukocytes, but not PBMC, suggest that in the pathophysiology of bronchial asthma, these cytokines may act as local pathogenic agents in the lung.The American review of respiratory disease 02/1993; 147(2):291-5. · 10.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neonatal animals of several species are more tolerant of hyperoxic exposure than are adults. However, the mechanisms of increased neonatal tolerance are unknown, as are the cell types that contribute to oxygen resistance. This study examined hyperoxic lung injury in neonatal and adult C57BL/6 mice. Adults and neonatal mice were exposed to > 95% oxygen for 78 h and 10 days, respectively. Lung mRNAs were assayed by RNase protection assay. After 72 h of exposure, the messages encoding tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 1 beta and 6 (IL-1 beta, IL-6) were increased 2-fold in adult lungs. However, at this time point these mice are near or at lethality. No alterations in neonatal lung mRNAs were detected until 7 days of oxygen exposure. At that time neonatal mice demonstrated increases in lung mRNAs encoding TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6 of 3-, 5-, and 8-fold, respectively. Acute alveolitis and slight edema were detected, but lethality wasn't observed until 10 days of exposure. In situ hybridization in neonatal mice suggests accumulation of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta transcripts in pulmonary interstitial macrophages and in a subset of neutrophils after 7 days of exposure. Messages encoding IL-1 alpha, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5,IL-10 interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and TNF-beta were not altered from controls in either adult or neonatal mice at any time point examined. In conclusion, adult mice demonstrate little change in cytokine mRNA until lethality is imminent, whereas newborn mice demonstrate an acute induction of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6 early in the development of hyperoxic injury, which suggests that a rapid cytokine response early in the development of hyperoxic injury may play an important role in the adaptation of neonatal lungs to toxicity from prolonged oxygen exposure.Experimental Lung Research 01/1997; 23(6):537-52. · 1.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) is a cytokine which plays a critical role in resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. While T lymphocytes and natural killer cells are a major source of IFN-gamma, previous demonstrations that it can be produced by murine macrophages prompted us to examine the capacity of human alveolar macrophages to express IFN-gamma. Here we report that in vitro infection of alveolar macrophages with M. tuberculosis induces both the release of IFN-gamma protein and a transient increase in IFN-gamma mRNA levels. The IFN-producing cells were shown to be macrophages by reverse transcription-in situ PCR. We also observed that M. tuberculosis stimulation resulted in IFN-gamma-dependent expression of the chemokines IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 and monokine induced by IFN-gamma, suggesting that macrophage-derived IFN-gamma can function in an autocrine and/or paracrine manner. The existence of a positive regulatory loop was suggested by the observation that exogenous IFN-gamma protein could induce IFN-gamma mRNA expression in uninfected alveolar macrophages. Interleukin-12 was also found to be a potent inducer of IFN-gamma production, and M. tuberculosis-induced IFN-gamma production appears to be mediated, at least in part, by IL-12. In contrast, M. tuberculosis-induced IFN-gamma production by alveolar macrophages could be blocked by exogenous interleukin-10. These studies are the first to demonstrate an autoregulatory role for IFN-gamma produced by alveolar macrophages infected in vitro with M. tuberculosis.Infection and Immunity 01/1998; 65(12):5149-56. · 4.07 Impact Factor