Genetic analysis of hepatitis A virus variants circulating among children presenting with acute diarrhea in Cameroon.
ABSTRACT Molecular investigation was undertaken of circulating hepatitis A virus (HAV) associated with cases of acute diarrhea among children under 5 years of age in Kumba-Cameroon. Reverse transcription PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of a 371 bp segment of the VP1/P2A junction of six isolates obtained from stool samples showed the exclusive emergence of genetically related HAV subgenotype IA. All the isolates clustered within a unique lineage exhibiting a 99.5% nucleotide identity suggesting infection from a common source. The Cameroonian HAV isolates did not intermix or cluster with those from other regions of Africa and the rest of the world. Tajima's neutralization tests using the six sequences suggested HAV/IA population expansion (D = -1.37; P = 0.016). This is the first description of indigenous HAV genotypes circulating in Cameroon revealing a community-wide spread and predominance of HAV/1A infection in the Kumba area. These findings stress the need for routine molecular tracking of HAV infection as a contributory cause of acute diarrhea in Cameroonian children.
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ABSTRACT: Infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the commonest viral cause of liver disease and presents an important public health problem worldwide. Several unique HAV properties and molecular mechanisms of its interaction with host were recently discovered and should aid in clarifying the pathogenesis of hepatitis A. Genetic characterization of HAV strains have resulted in the identification of different genotypes and subtypes, which exhibit a characteristic worldwide distribution. Shifts in HAV endemicity occurring in different parts of the world, introduction of genetically diverse strains from geographically distant regions, genotype displacement observed in some countries and population expansion detected in the last decades of the 20(th) century using phylogenetic analysis are important factors contributing to the complex dynamics of HAV infections worldwide. Strong selection pressures, some of which, like usage of deoptimized codons, are unique to HAV, limit genetic variability of the virus. Analysis of subgenomic regions has been proven useful for outbreak investigations. However, sharing short sequences among epidemiologically unrelated strains indicates that specific identification of HAV strains for molecular surveillance can be achieved only using whole-genome sequences. Here, we present up-to-date information on the HAV molecular epidemiology and evolution, and highlight the most relevant features of the HAV-host interactions.Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 11/2013; 21. DOI:10.1016/j.meegid.2013.10.023 · 3.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) has shown intermediate endemicity in Argentina, but its incidence has decreased since vaccine introduction in 2005. Environmental surveillance was conducted in five rivers from Argentina from 2005 to 2012, complementing clinical information. HAV detection decreased since 2005, although its circulation continues, maintaining viral diversity but not undergoing antigenic drift. Most sequences belonged to subgenotype IA, closely related to Argentinean clinical sequences, but one belonged to proposed subgenotype IC, previously undetected in the country. Environmental surveillance might contribute to monitoring the single-dose vaccination schedule, representing not only strains causing disease but also the circulating population and the viral introductions.Clinical Microbiology and Infection 09/2012; DOI:10.1111/1469-0691.12034 · 4.58 Impact Factor