Plasma Cytokine Profiles at Diagnosis in Pediatric Patients With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
ABSTRACT Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has been associated with elevated levels of inflammatory and immune-regulating cytokines, and polymorphisms in the genes encoding interleukin (IL)-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α have been associated with increased incidence of certain subtypes of NHL. The aim of the present study was to screen for a broader spectrum of growth factors and inflammatory mediators and to compare the profiles in different subtypes of NHL in pediatric patients. Serum samples were collected at diagnosis from 31 pediatric patients diagnosed with NHL admitted at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, between 1995 and 2008. Cytokines and growth factors were measured in serum using the Luminex platform by application of a 30-plex kit. Levels of IL-6, IL-2R, IL-10, TNF-RI, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α were significantly higher in patients with anaplastic large-cell lymphoma compared with patients diagnosed with B-cell lymphomas and lymphoblastic lymphomas. High levels of IL-4, IL-13, TNF-RI, and epidermal growth factor were associated with a poorer general condition at diagnosis. The present study suggests that NHL subgrouping and the general condition of pediatric patients at diagnosis are associated with plasma levels of growth factors and inflammatory mediators at presentation.
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ABSTRACT: During the last two decades, a number of approaches for the activation of the immune system against cancer has been developed. These include highly specific interventions, such as monoclonal antibodies, vaccines and cell-based therapies, as well as relatively unselective strategies, such as the systemic administration of adjuvants and immunomodulatory cytokines. Cytokines constitute a huge group of proteins that, taken together, regulate not only virtually all the aspects of innate and cognate immunity, but also several other cellular and organismal functions. Cytokines operate via specific transmembrane receptors that are expressed on the plasma membrane of target cells and, depending on multiple variables, can engage autocrine, paracrine or endocrine signaling pathways. The most appropriate term for defining the cytokine network is "pleiotropic": cytokines are produced by - and operate on - multiple, often overlapping, cell types, triggering context-depend biological outcomes as diverse as cell proliferation, chemotaxis, differentiation, inflammation, elimination of pathogens and cell death. Moreover, cytokines often induce the release of additional cytokines, thereby engaging self-amplificatory or self-inhibitory signaling cascades. In this Trial Watch, we will summarize the biological properties of cytokines and discuss the progress of ongoing clinical studies evaluating their safety and efficacy as immunomodulatory agents against cancer.OncoImmunology 07/2012; 1(4):493-506. DOI:10.4161/onci.24850 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in children is very rare. CML occurring as a secondary malignancy in individuals treated for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is also rare. Case Report: We present the case of a 5-year-old female patient who developed a right orbital mass that was diagnosed as DLBCL. 9 months after receiving treatment for DLBCL, she presented with a white cell count of 250,000/mm(3). Peripheral blood and bone marrow (BM) evaluation revealed a myeloproliferative disorder. Cytogenetic and molecular studies demonstrated the presence of t(9;22). CML following DLBCL has not been previously described in the younger population. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a child who developed a CML as a second malignancy after DLBCL. Therapy-related CML and non-therapy-related secondary CML are discussed as potential explanations of this highly unusual clinical presentation. Conclusion: Hematological disorders such as CML may occur after lymphomas. With the increased use of BM cytogenetic studies during staging for lymphoid malignancies, future studies may be able to clarify the question of whether the CML clone in some of these patients existed before treatment for lymphoma.Onkologie 11/2012; 35(11):690-3. DOI:10.1159/000343952 · 0.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pediatric non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) are a heterogeneous group of malignancies with distinct clinical, pathological, immunological and genetic characteristics. More than 90% of pediatric NHLs belong to one of three major histological subtypes: mature B-cell neoplasms, lymphoblastic lymphomas and anaplastic large-cell lymphomas. The recognition that different subtypes require different treatment regimens resulted in therapeutic strategies leading to over 80% of patients being cured. On the other hand, patients with resistant or relapsed disease have a poor prognosis. Prognostic biomarkers have not yet been identified for all pediatric NHLs and, although some are very important for diagnosis and prognosis, others may be of questionable value. Discovery of new biomarkers suitable for clinical application may aid the diagnosis and classification of lymphomas, which should, in turn, lead to better patient stratification. Consequent development of new treatment and follow-up approaches should lead to more efficient and less toxic treatment in children with NHL.Biomarkers in Medicine 10/2013; 7(5):791-801. DOI:10.2217/bmm.13.84 · 2.86 Impact Factor