[Psychiatric care in emergency departments].
ABSTRACT Psychiatric emergency situations (PES) are frequent in emergency departments (EDs). There are, however, only few investigations that focus on the prevalence of these patients or on diagnostic and therapeutic standards. These PESs in EDs should be treated according to standards comparable to medically disabled patients. Thus it is necessary to learn more about the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities in EDs, about the procedures and the decision-making process whether these patients are transferred to further outpatient or inpatient treatment.
A survey was conducted in EDs throughout Germany and 1,073 were contacted and asked to participate. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the size of the ED and of the hospital (e.g. number of patients and physicians), the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities, standard procedures for dealing with PES and the method of care in six typical case reports.
A total of 74 EDs participated (76% interdisciplinary EDs) with an average of 22,827 ± 12,303 patients per year in the ED. Psychiatry as a medical discipline was integrated into 10 EDs (14%) and psychiatric competence could be activated in 84% of EDs. Participating EDs reported prevalence rates of 15% mentally disordered patients and 9% of patients who required psychiatric diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Of the patients 2% presented after suicide attempts and 3% were considered to be aggressive. Approximately 50% of all PESs were related to substance abuse disorders. An average of 2.5 ± 4.2 (range 0-25) members of the medical and nursing staff were injured during a 1-year period by violent patients. Legal actions against the will of patients were initiated in 81% of EDs. Standardized diagnostic screening instruments or self-rating questionnaires were used in only four EDs. As standard procedures for the diagnostic work-up of psychiatric patients (medical clearance) physical examination, measurement of heart rate and blood pressure and conducting of some laboratory tests (glucose, blood cell count, electrolytes and renal function) were named. Diazepam (91%), lorazepam (88%) and haloperidol (87%) were considered to be indispensable psychopharmacological agents in the ED.
In the majority of participating EDs, diagnostic standards for PES were known but were not routinely applied. It has to be assumed that many psychiatric disorders, in particular suicide attempts and suicidal ideation are not discovered. In many EDs psychiatric knowledge was available but a psychiatric consultation was only rarely requested. Physicians in the ED report a high degree of legal uncertainty with psychiatric patients. The use of screening instruments is recommended.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Patients with mental health problems in accident and emergency departments (A&E) are frequent users and often difficult to handle. Failure in managing these patients can cause adversities to both patients and A&E staff. It has been shown that nurse-based psychiatric consultation-liaison (CL) services work successfully and cost effectively in English-speaking countries, but they are hardly found in European countries. The aim of this study was to determine whether such a liaison service can be established in the A&E of a German general hospital. We describe structural and procedural elements of this service and present data of A&E patients who were referred to the newly established service during the first year of its existence, as well as an evaluation of this nurse-led service by non-psychiatric staff in the A&E and psychiatrists of the hospital's department of psychiatry.Der Nervenarzt 06/2014; 85(9). DOI:10.1007/s00115-014-4069-8 · 0.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hintergrund Suizidversuche und Suizidalität stellen für den Notarzt und für die Notaufnahme ein Problem dar, das mit hohem Zeitaufwand verbunden ist. Viele Notärzte fühlen sich in der Versorgung suizidaler Patienten überfordert. Versorgung Im Zentrum der Versorgung dieser Patienten steht der Aufbau einer tragfähigen Beziehung. Nur dann ist es möglich, im Sinne einer Krisenintervention therapeutisch zu intervenieren. Eine kurzfristige (oft einmalige) psychopharmakologische Behandlung kann unterstützend wirken. Psychiatrische Weiterbehandlung Zuerst muss die weitere mögliche Eigengefährdung und die hiermit verbundene Notwendigkeit einer stationären Behandlung in einer psychiatrischen Klinik entschieden werden. Für die ambulante Versorgung ist die sichere Vermittlung einer spezifischen psychotherapeutisch-psychiatrischen Therapie unter Mitwirkung von Angehörigen entscheidend.Notfall 10/2012; 15(7):586-592. DOI:10.1007/s10049-012-1580-y · 0.32 Impact Factor