Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for brain metastases larger than three centimeters

Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital & Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.
Radiation Oncology (Impact Factor: 2.55). 03/2012; 7(1):36. DOI: 10.1186/1748-717X-7-36
Source: PubMed


To evaluate the efficacy and outcomes of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HSRT) for brain metastases > 3 cm.
From March 2003 to October 2009, 40 patients with brain metastases larger than 3 cm were treated by HSRT. HSRT was applied in 29 patients for primary treatment and in 11 patients for rescue. Single brain metastasis was detected in 21 patients. Whole brain radiotherapy was incorporated into HSRT in 10 patients for primary treatment. HSRT boosts were applied in 23 patients. The diameters of the brain metastases ranged from 3.1 to 5.5 cm (median, 4.1 cm). The median prescribed dose (not including HSRT boosts) was 40 Gy (range, 20-53 Gy) with a median of 10 fractions (range, 4-15 fractions) to the 90% isodose line. The median dose of the boost was 20 Gy (range, 10-35 Gy) in 4 fractions (range, 2-10 fractions).
The median overall survival time was 15 months. The overall survival and local control rate at 12 months was 55.3% and 94.2%, respectively. Four patients experienced local progression of large brain metastases. Nine patients died of intracranial disease progression. One patient died of radiation necrosis with brain edema.
HSRT was a safe and effective treatment for patients with brain metastases ranged from 3.1 to 5.5 cm. Dose escalation of HSRT boost may improve local control with an acceptable toxicity.

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Available from: Jun-Lin Yi, Feb 16, 2014
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    • "Late radiation toxicity of 13.8% grade 3 cognitive impairment in our group was comparable to previous data of 6%-11% grade 3 late toxicities from other studies [16,17]. The incidence of radiation necrosis was one of the major concerns in late toxicities from WBRT plus focal radiotherapy boost, but it was quite infrequent in our study, and was similar to other reports of WBRT plus focal hfSRT boost [10,16-18]. Leukoencephalopathy and cognitive impairment were primary late toxicities in present study, and only history of EGFR-TKI treatment was a risk factor for grade 2 leukoencephalopathy in multivariate analysis, which had not been reported by other studies. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) plus sequential focal radiation boost is a commonly used therapeutic strategy for patients with brain metastases. However, recent reports on WBRT plus simultaneous in-field boost (SIB) also showed promising outcomes. The objective of present study is to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of WBRT plus SIB with image guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) for inoperable brain metastases of NSCLC. Methods Twenty-nine NSCLC patients with 87 inoperable brain metastases were included in this retrospective study. All patients received WBRT at a dose of 40 Gy/20 f, and SIB boost with IG-IMRT at a dose of 20 Gy/5 f concurrent with WBRT in the fourth week. Prior to each fraction of IG-IMRT boost, on-line positioning verification and correction were used to ensure that the set-up errors were within 2 mm by cone beam computed tomography in all patients. Results The one-year intracranial control rate, local brain failure rate, and distant brain failure rate were 62.9%, 13.8%, and 19.2%, respectively. The two-year intracranial control rate, local brain failure rate, and distant brain failure rate were 42.5%, 30.9%, and 36.4%, respectively. Both median intracranial progression-free survival and median survival were 10 months. Six-month, one-year, and two-year survival rates were 65.5%, 41.4%, and 13.8%, corresponding to 62.1%, 41.4%, and 10.3% of intracranial progression-free survival rates. Patients with Score Index for Radiosurgery in Brain Metastases (SIR) >5, number of intracranial lesions <3, and history of EGFR-TKI treatment had better survival. Three lesions (3.45%) demonstrated radiation necrosis after radiotherapy. Grades 2 and 3 cognitive impairment with grade 2 radiation leukoencephalopathy were observed in 4 (13.8%) and 4 (13.8%) patients. No dosimetric parameters were found to be associated with these late toxicities. Patients received EGFR-TKI treatment had higher incidence of grades 2–3 cognitive impairment with grade 2 leukoencephalopathy. Conclusions WBRT plus SIB with IG-IMRT is a tolerable and effective treatment for NSCLC patients with inoperable brain metastases. However, the results of present study need to be examined by the prospective investigations.
    Radiation Oncology 05/2014; 9(1):117. DOI:10.1186/1748-717X-9-117 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    • "However, the optimal number of fractions, the marginal isodose (%) and the marginal dose have not been established, and the exact incidence of adverse effects on the surrounding brain is unclear. Morbidity and even mortality have been reported after fractionated radiosurgery for large brain metastases [6–7]. We have previously reported a study of three-fraction radiotherapy for brain metastases in critical areas, including larger tumors, and recommended that larger fraction numbers should be selected for large brain metastases [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy and toxicity of five-fraction CyberKnife radiotherapy were evaluated in patients with large brain metastases in critical areas. A total of 85 metastases in 78 patients, including tumors >30 cm(3) (4 cm in diameter) were treated with five-fraction CyberKnife radiotherapy with a median marginal dose of 31 Gy at a median prescribed isodose of 58%. Changes in the neurological manifestations, local tumor control, and adverse effects were investigated after treatment. The surrounding brain volumes circumscribed with 28.8 Gy (single dose equivalent to 14 Gy: V14) were measured to evaluate the risk of radiation necrosis. Neurological manifestations, such as motor weakness, visual disturbances and aphasia improved in 28 of 55 patients (50.9%). Local tumor control was obtained in 79 of 85 metastases (92.9%) during a median follow-up of eight months. Symptomatic edema occurred in 10 patients, and two of them (2.6%) required surgical resection because of radiation necrosis. The V14 of these patients was 3.0-19.7 cm(3). There were 16 lesions with a V14 of ≥7.0 cm(3), and two of these lesions developed extensive brain edema due to radiation necrosis. None of the patients with a V14 of <7.0 cm(3) exhibited edema requiring surgical intervention. We therefore conclude that a high rate of local tumor control and low rates of complications can be obtained after five-fraction CyberKnife radiotherapy for large metastases in critical areas. The V14 of the surrounding brain is therefore a useful indicator for the risk of radiation necrosis in patients with large metastases.
    Journal of Radiation Research 11/2013; 55(2). DOI:10.1093/jrr/rrt127 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Object: The use of radiosurgery has been well accepted for treating small to medium-size metastatic brain tumors (MBTs). However, its utility in treating large MBTs remains uncertain due to potentially unfavorable effects such as progressive perifocal brain edema and neurological deterioration. In this retrospective study the authors evaluated the local tumor control rate and analyzed possible factors affecting tumor and brain edema response. Methods: The authors defined a large brain metastasis as one with a measurement of 3 cm or more in at least one of the 3 cardinal planes (coronal, axial, or sagittal). A consecutive series of 109 patients with 119 large intracranial metastatic lesions were treated with Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) between October 2000 and December 2012; the median tumor volume was 16.8 cm(3) (range 6.0-74.8 cm(3)). The pre-GKS Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score for these patients ranged from 70 to 100. The most common tumors of origin were non-small cell lung cancers (29.4% of cases in this series). Thirty-six patients (33.0%) had previously undergone a craniotomy (1-3 times) for tumor resection. Forty-three patients (39.4%) underwent whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) before GKS. Patients were treated with GKS and followed clinically and radiographically at 2- to 3-month intervals thereafter. Results: The median duration of imaging follow-up after GKS for patients with large MBTs in this series was 6.3 months. In the first follow-up MRI studies (performed within 3 months after GKS), 77 lesions (64.7%) had regressed, 24 (20.2%) were stable, and 18 (15.1%) were found to have grown. Peritumoral brain edema as defined on T2-weighted MRI sequences had decreased in 79 lesions (66.4%), was stable in 21 (17.6%), but had progressed in 19 (16.0%). In the group of patients who survived longer than 6 months (76 patients with 77 MBTs), 88.3% of the MBTs (68 of 77 lesions) had regressed or remained stable at the most recent imaging follow-up, and 89.6% (69 of 77 lesions) showed regression of perifocal brain edema volume or stable condition. The median duration of survival after GKS was 8.3 months for patients with large MBTs. Patients with small cell lung cancer and no previous WBRT had a significantly higher tumor control rate as well as better brain edema relief. Patients with a single metastasis, better KPS scores, and no previous radiosurgery or WBRT were more likely to decrease corticosteroid use after GKS. On the other hand, higher pre-GKS KPS score was the only factor that showed a statistically significant association with longer survival. Conclusions: Treating large MBTs using either microsurgery or radiosurgery is a challenge for neurosurgeons. In selected patients with large brain metastases, radiosurgery offered a reasonable local tumor control rate and favorable functional preservation. Exacerbation of underlying edema was rare in this case series. Far more commonly, edema and steroid use were lessened after radiosurgery. Radiosurgery appears to be a reasonable option for some patients with large MBTs.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 10/2013; 120(1). DOI:10.3171/2013.9.JNS131163 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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