Morphophenotypic characteristics of intralymphatic cancer and stromal cells susceptible to lymphogenic metastasis.
ABSTRACT The intravessel microenvironment has significant effects on cancer metastasis. The aim of the present study was to determine how the morphologic and immunophenotypic features of cancer cells and infiltrating stromal cells within the permeated lymphatic vessels are associated with lymphogenic metastasis. A total of 137 primary lung adenocarcinoma patients with extratumoral lymphatic permeations were examined. Morphologically, the floating cancer nests within the permeated lymphatic vessels were divided into two types: Type A, consisting of a single large cancer nest; and Type B, consisting of multiple small cancer nests. We compared the clinicopathologic characteristics and the immunophenotypes of the cancer cells and infiltrating stromal cells between the Type A and Type B nests. Eleven of 54 Type A patients (20%) had intrapulmonary metastases, compared with 36 of 83 Type B patients (43%; P = 0.006). Immunohistochemically, Type B cancer cells expressed significantly higher levels of CD44 than Type A cancer cells (mean scoresAUTHOR: Scores - what is this score? Is it the number of cells expressing CD44 or the concentration of CD44 or some other type of scoring system? 43.0 vs 20.5, respectively) and E-cadherin (60.5 vs 31.5, respectively), but lower levels of Geminin (11.9% vs 20.3%, respectively) and cleaved caspase 3 (2.4% vs 7.8%AUTHOR: 11.9% vs 20.3%, respectively) and cleaved caspase 3 (2.4% vs 7.8%, - what do the percentages here refer to? The number of cells expressing geminin and caspase 3? The levels of these factors? Please clarify., respectively). Moreover, a significantly larger number of CD204-positive macrophages were present within the cancer-permeated lymphatic vessels in Type B patients than in Type A patients (mean number 9.5 vs 4.6, respectively). The present study reveals that intralymphatic cancer cell and stromal cell phenotypes are susceptible to lymphogenic metastasis, suggesting that lymphogenic metastasis may be affected by the intralymphatic microenvironment they create. (Cancer Sci, doi: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2012.02275.x, 2012).
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ABSTRACT: Intralymphatic tumors in the extratumoral area are considered to represent the preceding phase of lymph node metastasis. The aim of this study was to clarify the biological properties of intralymphatic tumors susceptible to the development of lymph node metastasis, with special reference to the expression of cancer initiating/stem cell (CIC/CSC) related markers in cancer cells and the number of infiltrating stromal cells. Primary lung adenocarcinomas with lymphatic permeation in the extratumoral area were retrospectively examined (n = 107). We examined the expression levels of CIC/CSC related markers including ALDH1, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2 and Caveolin-1 in the intralymphatic cancer cells to evaluate their relationship to lymph node metastasis. Moreover, the number of infiltrating stromal cells expressing CD34, α-smooth muscle actin, and CD204 were also evaluated. Among the intralymphatic tissues, low ALDH1 expression in cancer cells, high SOX2 expression in cancer cells, and a high number of CD204(+) macrophages were independent predictive factors for lymph node metastasis (P = 0.004, P = 0.008, and P = 0.028, respectively). Among these factors, only low ALDH1 expression in cancer cells was significantly correlated with the farther spreading of lymph node metastasis (mediastinal lymph node, pathological N2) (P = 0.046) and the metastatic lymph node ratio (metastatic/resected) (P = 0.028). On the other hand, in the primary tumors, ALDH1 expression in the cancer cells was not associated with lymph node metastasis. Intralymphatic cancer cells expressing low ALDH1 levels exhibited lower E-cadherin expression levels than cancer cells with high levels of ALDH1 expression (P = 0.015). Intralymphatic cancer cells expressing low levels of ALDH1 and infiltrating macrophages expressing CD204 have a critical impact on lymph node metastasis. Our study also highlighted the significance of evaluating the biological properties of intralymphatic tumors for tumor metastasis.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e83537. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Histological vascular invasion (VI) by tumors is reportedly a risk factor influencing recurrence or survival after surgical treatment; however, few studies have evaluated which VI features affect recurrence or survival. The objective of this study was to evaluate how VI features affect recurrence in lung adenocarcinoma patients. We selected 106 patients with pathological stage I lung adenocarcinoma who exhibited VI and examined the properties of intravascular tumors associated with recurrence. First we investigated the relationship between the frequency of VI in a histological cross section and the incidence of recurrence; however, a significant impact was not observed. Microscopic examination revealed the intravascular tumors were composed of not only cancer cells but also non-cancerous cells. To examine whether the characteristics of intravascular cancer cells and/or non-cancerous cells have prognostic value, we examined the expression levels of EMT-related markers in cancer cells and the numbers of infiltrating non-cancerous cells including macrophages, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. High levels of E-cadherin expression in the intravascular cancer cells were significant predictors of recurrence (P = 0.004), while the expressions of CD44, CD44 variant 6, and vimentin were not. Large numbers of intravascular CD204(+) macrophages (P = 0.016), CD34(+) microvessels (P = 0.007), and α-smooth muscle actin (+) fibroblasts (P = 0.033) were also significant predictors of recurrence. Our results indicated VI with abundant stromal cell infiltrates might be a predictor of recurrence and suggested the tumor microenvironment created by cancer cells and stromal cells within the blood vessel may play an important role during the metastatic process. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Cancer Science 06/2013; · 3.48 Impact Factor