Authors' affiliations: T Blom, School of Dental Hygiene, INHOLLAND University of Applied sciences, Amsterdam, and Dental practice Blom Ltd., Limmen, The Netherlands DE Slot, GA Van der Weijden, Department of Periodontology, Academic Center for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Amsterdam, The Netherlands M Quirynen, Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Oral Pathology and Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
To cite this article: Int J Dent Hygiene10, 2012; 209-222 DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-5037.2012.00546.x Blom T, Slot DE, Quirynen M, Van der Weijden GA. The effect of mouthrinses on oral malodor: a systematic review. Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study is to systematically review the literature regarding the impact of mouthrinses on oral malodor and present evidence for the treatment effects of mouthrinses on oral malodor. Material and methods: PubMed-MEDLINE, the Cochrane-CENTRAL and EMBASE were searched through February 10, 2012 to identify appropriate studies. Volatile sulphur compound measurements, organoleptic measurements and tongue coating were selected as outcome variables. Search results: The independent screenings of 333 unique titles and paper abstracts revealed 12 publications (12 experiments) that met the eligibility criteria. Means and standard deviations were extracted. The results were separated into short-term (<3 weeks) and longer-term (≥3 weeks) studies. Conclusion: In this review, nearly all mouthwashes with active ingredients had beneficial effects in reducing oral malodor in both short- and longer-term studies. The most compelling evidence was provided for chlorhexidine mouthwashes, and those that contained a combination of cetyl pyridinum chloride and zinc provided the best evidence profile on oral malodor. Little data with respect to tongue coating were available, and none of the studies showed a beneficial effect for this parameter.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plaque Glycolysis and Regrowth Method (PGRM) is a proven clinical assay for bioavailability, retention and proportional efficacy of mouthrinses containing the antimicrobial cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) (J Clin Dent 6: 59, 1995; Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 356 Vol 68: 103, May 29 2003). Objective: This study compared the effectiveness of two CPC mouthrinses on PGRM efficacy. Methods: The study employed a controlled, double-blind, randomized, two-treatment, four-period crossover design. 20 qualified adult PGRM subjects were supplied with acclimation NaF dentifrice (Crest Cavity Protection, Procter and Gamble) for use throughout the trial. Test products included: 0.075 % CPC antigingivitis rinse (Colgate Total, Colgate-Palmolive - CT) and 0.070 % CPC antigingivitis rinse (Crest Pro-Health, Procter and Gamble - CPH). On treatment days, subjects visited the clinic in the morning prior to hygiene/breakfast, had supragingival baseline plaque samples collected from upper quadrants, followed by rinsing for 30 seconds with 20 ml of assigned treatment. Lower left and right quadrants plaque samples were collected 15 and 45 minutes after rinsing. Sampled plaques were vortexed, normalized for biomass and incubated under standard conditions to assess glycolysis (J Clin Dent 6: 59, 1995). pH of the plaque incubation suspensions was compared to starting pH and an Area Under Curve (AUC) aggregate analysis of glycolysis inhibition was used for treatment comparisons. Results: ANCOVA adjusted measures: plaque metabolism pH: 15 min post rinse CPH 6.44 (0.055) -s- CT 5.94 (0.055) [p< 0.0001, statistically significant (-s-)]; 45 min post rinse: CPH 6.30 (0.057) -s- CT 5.78 (0.056) [p< 0.0001]; AUC glycolysis: CPH 48.22 (1.95) -s- CT 29.10 (1.93) [p < 0.0001]. Conclusion: CPC bioavailability varied in commercial rinses and activity was not proportional to supplied dose. CPH rinse with 700 ppm CPC provided 66% increase in glycolysis inhibition as compared to CT rinse containing 750 ppm CPC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
The study objective was to collect diagnostic data, to explore correlations between diagnostic variables, to provide an accurate initial diagnosis, and to provide appropriate management in consecutive subjects consulting with a multidisciplinary halitosis team because of a halitosis complaint.
Nine hundred and fifty-four subjects with halitosis complaints applied for consultation. Subjects' history data were collected and organoleptic measurements and a physical examination were performed. Finally, genuine halitosis or pseudo-halitosis/halitophobia was diagnosed initially and management was provided.
Genuine oral halitosis was diagnosed initially in 93% of cases. Using oral cleaning materials, performing mechanical tongue cleaning, and periodical dentist consultation were over-represented in women, whereas men were more likely to have observable biofilm and carious lesions than women. Female gender was associated with tongue coating. Positive associations were found between age and performing mechanical tongue cleaning, organoleptic measurement scores as well as poor oral health. Educational level was positively associated with oral self care behaviours. Performing mechanical tongue cleaning was not associated with periodical dentist consultation.
In nearly all subjects complaining of halitosis, an oral cause could be detected.
Oral health and dental management 06/2014; 13(2):348-53.
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