HLA-B*1502 allele is associated with a cross-reactivity pattern of cutaneous adverse reactions to antiepileptic drugs.

Department of Neurology, Institute of Neurology, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
The Journal of international medical research (Impact Factor: 0.96). 01/2012; 40(1):377-82. DOI:10.1177/147323001204000140
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The US Food and Drug Administration has recommended genetic screening for the human leucocyte antigen-B (HLA-B)*1502 allele in patients of Asian ethnicity before starting carbamazepine therapy, to avoid the fatal adverse treatment-related events associated with this drug. The association between cross-reactivity to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and the HLA-B*1502 allele has been only rarely reported. Here, two cases of cross-reactivity to AEDs, where cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADRs) developed in female Han Chinese patients with epilepsy who tested positive for the HLA-B*1502 allele, are described. If the genetic association could be confirmed in larger studies, the HLA-B*1502 allele should be tested for in any patient experiencing cADRs, to avoid crossreactivity to AEDs.

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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: HLA-B*15:02 screening is recommended before starting carbamazepine in Han Chinese and Southeast Asians because the allele is strongly predictive of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) induced by the drug. We examined whether other HLA-B alleles are also involved and whether the association extends to other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). METHODS: Cases of SJS/TEN induced by any AEDs were recruited and matched (1:5) with AED-tolerant controls. Carrier rates of HLA-B alleles, determined by direct sequencing, were compared between cases and controls. Results were meta-analyzed with previous studies to examine the associations between HLA-B*15:02 and SJS/TEN induced by phenytoin and lamotrigine. KEY FINDINGS: A total of 55 cases (27 carbamazepine, 15 phenytoin, 6 lamotrigine, 7 other AEDs) and 275 controls were recruited. In drug-specific analysis, the carrier rate of HLA-B*15:02 was significantly higher in carbamazepine-SJS/TEN cases compared with carbamazepine-tolerant controls (92.3% vs. 11.9%; p = 3.51 × 10(-18) ; odds ratio (OR) 89.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) 19.25-413.83), and also in phenytoin-SJS/TEN cases compared with phenytoin-tolerant controls (46.7% vs. 20.0%; p = 0.045; OR 3.50; 95% CI 1.10-11.18). Meta-analyses showed a strong association of HLA-B*15:02 with phenytoin-SJS/TEN (p < 3 × 10(-4) ; OR 4.26; 95% CI 1.93-9.39) and, to a lesser extent, lamotrigine-SJS/TEN (p = 0.03; OR 3.59; 95% CI 1.15-11.22). Compared with drug-tolerant controls, the carrier rates of HLA-B*40:01 and HLA-B*58:01 were lower in cases of SJS/TEN induced by carbamazepine (p = 0.004) and other AEDs (p = 0.009), respectively. SIGNIFICANCE: SJS/TEN induced by carbamazepine and phenytoin is strongly and moderately associated with HLA-B*15:02 in Han Chinese, respectively. Possible protective associations with HLA-B*40:01 and HLA-B*58:01 warrant further investigation.
    Epilepsia 05/2013; · 3.96 Impact Factor


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J. Wang