Cytotoxic effect of fenitrothion and lambda-cyhalothrin mixture on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in rat kidney

Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B Pesticides Food Contaminants and Agricultural Wastes (Impact Factor: 1.2). 04/2012; 47(4):262-8. DOI: 10.1080/03601234.2012.636589
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A mixture of pyrethroids plus organophosphates was assessed for their potential effects on lipid peroxidation, the antioxidant defense system and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in rat kidney in vitro. Various insecticide concentrations were incubated with kidney homogenate at 37°C for different incubation times. Treatment with fenitothion (FNT) plus lambda-cyhalothrin (LC) caused a significant induction (P < 0.05) in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), which might be associated to decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities and protein content in rat kidney. However, a significant induction of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was observed. The effect was concentration and time dependent. It can be concluded that depletion of GSH might indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) could be involved in the toxic effects of FNT plus LC which lead to marked perturbations in antioxidant defense system.

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Available from: Fatma El-Demerdash, Jul 22, 2014
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    • "Oxidative damage primarily occurs through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and can damage lipids, proteins and DNA. Therefore, oxidative damage may contribute to loss of enzymatic activity and structural integrity of enzymes and activate inflammatory processes [30] [31]. The increase of TBARS and decreased GSH observed in serum following DZN exposure was probably ascribed to the excessive production of ROS, which could be related with hepatocyte enzyme leakage. "
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    ABSTRACT: Diazinon (DZN) is one of the most organophosphate insecticides that widely used in agriculture and industry. Selenium is generally recognized to be a trace mineral of great importance for human health, protecting the cells from the harmful effects of free radicals. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the alterations in biochemical parameters, free radicals and enzyme activities induced by diazinon in male rat serum, and the role of selenium in alleviating the negative effects of DZN. Animals were divided into four groups of seven rats each; the first group was used as control. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were treated with selenium (Se; 200μg/kg BW), diazinon (DZN; 10mg/kg BW) and diazinon plus selenium, respectively. Rats were orally administered their respective doses daily for 30 days. Results obtained showed that DZN significantly induced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and decreased the activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) and the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in rat sera. Aminotransferases (AST, ALT), phosphatases (AlP, AcP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were significantly increased while acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was decreased due to DZN administration. Also, DZN treatment caused significant perturbations in lipids profile and serum biochemical parameters. On the other hand, Se alone significantly decreased the levels of TBARS, total lipids, cholesterol, urea and creatinine, while increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content, total protein (TP) and albumin. In addition, Se in combination with DZN partially or totally alleviated its toxic effects on the studied parameters. In conclusion, Se has beneficial effects and could be able to antagonize DZN toxicity.
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    • "Lipid peroxidation (LPO) has been suggested as one of the molecular mechanisms involved in carbamate-induced toxicity (Banerjee et al., 1999). Enzymatic antioxidants and glutathione metabolism-regulating enzymes may protect the cellular system against various deleterious effects of free radicals induced by pesticides (El-Sharkawy et al., 1994; Mansour and Mossa, 2009; El-Demerdash, 2012). Thus, the present study was conducted to investigate the oxidative stress, enzymes alteration and histopathological changes induced by the insecticide methomyl on CD-1 mice. "
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    ABSTRACT: The widespread of pesticide in public health and agriculture has caused severe environmental pollution and health hazards. Methomyl is used worldwide in agriculture and health programs. Besides its advantages in the agriculture, it causes several toxic effects. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of methomyl at different time intervals on lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), total sulfhydryl group (T-SH), antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and histopathological changes in mice kidney. Ten CD-1 mice per group were assigned to one of four treatment groups. Group one served as control while groups 2, 3 and 4 were orally treated with 1mgmethomyl/kg BW for 10, 20 and 30 days, respectively. Methomyl significantly increased lipid peroxidation in kidney as compared to control group. Levels of GSH and T-SH and activities of SOD, CAT and GST were found to be decreased. On the other hand, methomyl significantly increased the levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine in serum. The histological examination of kidney revealed damage involving the entire renal nephrons in both 20 and 30 days of methomyl exposure. Severe dilatation of the cortical tissue, congested glomerulus with swelling of the endothelial cells and degeneration of the epithelium cells lining the tubules were observed. In conclusion, the results suggest that methomyl exposure can cause renal damage, oxidative stress, perturbations in antioxidant defense system and histopathologic changes in mice kidney in a time dependent manner.
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    ABSTRACT: In this work we proposed a model for in-vitro interaction of fenitrothion (FEN) with calf thymus-DNA by combination of multispectroscopic and two dimensional molecular modeling (ONIOM) methods. The circular dichroism results showed that FEN changes the conformation of B-DNA and caused some changes to C-DNA form. The FT-IR results confirmed a partial intercalation between FEN and edges of all base pairs. The competitive fluorescence, using methylene blue as fluorescence probe, in the presence of increasing amounts of FEN, revealed that FEN is able to release the non-intercalated methylene blue from the DNA. The weak chemical shift and peak broadening of (1)H-NMR spectrum of FEN in the presence of DNA confirmed a non-intercalation mode. The (31)P-NMR showed that FEN interacts more with DNA via its -NO(2) moiety. The ONIOM, based on the hybridization of QM/MM (DFT, 6.31++G (d,p)/UFF) methodology, was also performed by Gaussian 2003 package. The results revealed that the interaction is base sequence dependent, and FEN interacts more with AT base sequences.
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