Statin Therapy and Hemodialysis Vascular Access-Were We Bringing a Knife to a Gunfight and Were Hoping to Win?
ABSTRACT Vascular access dysfunction is a major contributor to end stage renal disease patient morbidity, and the cost of maintaining it is staggering. Any intervention able to improve the vascular access maturation rate and/or patency would be significant progress. Based on the anti-inflammatory and vascular beneficial effects demonstrated in non-end stage renal disease patients, we were hoping that statin use might provide the much needed improvement in the hemodialysis vascular access outcome. The reality proved disappointing. The statins failed to improve every aspect of hemodialysis vascular access studied. The present editorial discusses the current data regarding the effect of statins on vascular access and attempts to explain their lack of success.
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ABSTRACT: Complications associated with hemodialysis vascular access represent one of the most important sources of morbidity among ESRD patients in the United States today. In this study, new data on the magnitude and growth of vascular access-related hospitalization in the United States is presented, demonstrating that the costs of this morbidity will soon exceed $1 billion per yr. This study also reviews published literature on the morbidity associated specifically with native arteriovenous fistulae, polytetrafluoroethylene bridge grafts, and permanent central venous catheters. Next, new information on the changing patterns of vascular access type in the United States is presented, demonstrating the continuing evolution of medical practice away from the use of arteriovenous fistulae in favor of more reliance on synthetic bridge grafts. Based on these data, a discussion is provided of the tradeoffs among the most commonly available modalities of vascular access today. Although radial arteriovenous fistulae continue to represent the optimal access modality, the appropriate roles for brachial arteriovenous fistulae, synthetic bridge grafts, and central venous catheters are less certain because of inadequate data on the long-term function of the first and the high rates of complications associated with the latter two. To reduce vascular access-related morbidity, strategies must be developed not only to prevent and detect appropriately early synthetic vascular access dysfunction, but to better identify the patients in a whom radial arteriovenous fistula is a viable clinical option.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 05/1996; 7(4):523-35. · 8.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cholesterol-lowering therapy can improve cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with atherosclerosis. Although the mechanisms responsible are unclear, these benefits precede macroscopic changes in the vasculature. Emerging evidence that improvement in endothelial function may occur requires substantiation; in particular, it is unclear how early any such improvement would be detectable after initiation of therapy. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study evaluated the effect of simvastatin (20 mg daily for 4 weeks) on endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation and on the response to the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), in the forearm vasculature of subjects with moderate elevation of total serum cholesterol (6.0 to 10.0 mmol/L) by use of strain-gauge plethysmography. Studies were repeated after 3 more months of open therapy. When the results are expressed as percentage changes in flow in the infused arm relative to the noninfused arm, the vasodilator response to acetylcholine was significantly increased after 4 weeks of treatment with simvastatin (P < .0005), and this improvement was further enhanced after 3 months (P < .005). Concurrently, simvastatin augmented the vasoconstrictor response to L-NMMA, an effect that was maintained at 3 months (P < .0005). The response to the endothelium-independent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside was unaltered. These observations indicate that within 1 month of treatment with simvastatin, both the stimulated and basal nitric oxide dilator functions of the endothelium are augmented, and the benefits of this HMG-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor persist with continued therapy.Circulation 03/1997; 95(5):1126-31. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vascular access complications are common in hemodialysis patients. To investigate whether the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors influences the rate of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft complications, we compared the rate of intervention-free graft survival among patients treated versus not treated with ACE inhibitors. We retrospectively analyzed the survival of grafts placed at our institution between January 1, 1995, and October 31, 1999. Among 121 grafts, 25 grafts were placed in 19 patients treated with ACE inhibitors and 96 grafts were placed in 68 patients not treated with ACE inhibitors. Follow-up ranged from 1 month to 5 years. Ten of 25 grafts failed in the ACE-inhibitor group and 62 of 95 grafts failed in the non-ACE-inhibitor group. Actuarial intervention-free access survival rates (Kaplan-Meier) were significantly greater in the ACE-inhibitor than non-ACE-inhibitor group (71% versus 53% at 6 months, 58% versus 35% at 12 months, and 44% versus 22% at 24 months; P = 0.04). Using a Cox model adjusting for age, race, sex, and diabetes, the relative risk (RR) for access failure in the ACE-inhibitor group was 53% less than in the non-ACE-inhibitor group (RR, 0.47; p < 0.03). In a more complex Cox model with additional adjustment for comorbid conditions, the RR was even lower (RR, 0.32; P = 0.003) for the ACE-inhibitor compared with non-ACE-inhibitor group (reference = 1.00). The lower RR was observed for patients with and without congestive heart failure. These results suggest that ACE inhibitors offer clinical promise in the prevention of PTFE graft failure. A prospective randomized trial is warranted to confirm the benefit of ACE inhibitors.American Journal of Kidney Diseases 12/2001; 38(6):1240-4. · 5.29 Impact Factor