Sprains of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint, referred to colloquially as "turf toe," are a debilitating sports injury because the hallux is pivotal to an athletes' ability to accelerate and cut. Severe sprains may require weeks to full recovery, and injuries requiring surgery may prevent an athlete from full athletic participation for months. Whereas the diagnosis and treatment of turf toe are well documented in the literature, less is known about the biomechanics of this joint and the mechanical properties of the structures that compose it. Nevertheless, this information is vital to those, such as equipment designers, who attempt to develop athletic footwear and surfaces intended to reduce the likelihood of injury. To that end, this review summarizes the literature on the anatomy of the first MTP joint, on biomechanical studies of the first MTP joint, and on the incidence, mechanisms, and treatment of turf toe. Furthermore, gaps in the literature are identified and opportunities for future research are discussed. Only through a thorough synthesis of the anatomic, biomechanical, and clinical knowledge regarding first MTP joint sprains can appropriate countermeasures be designed to reduce the prevalence and severity of these injuries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synthetic playing surfaces have evolved considerably since their introduction in the 1960s. Today, third-generation turf is routinely installed in professional, collegiate, and community settings. Proponents of artificial surfaces tout their versatility and durability in a variety of climates. However, the health and injury ramifications have yet to be clearly defined. Musculoskeletal injury is largely affected by the shoe-playing surface interface. However, conclusive statements cannot be made regarding the risk of certain shoe-playing surface combinations because of the variety of additional factors, such as weather conditions, shoe wear, and field wear. Historically, clinical studies have indicated that higher injury rates occur on artificial turf than on natural surfaces. This conclusion is backed by robust biomechanical data that suggest that torque and strain may be greater on artificial surfaces than on natural grass. Recent data on professional athletes suggest that elite athletes may sustain injuries at increased rates on the newer surfaces. However, these surfaces remain attractive to athletes and administrators alike because of their durability, relative ease of maintenance, and multiuse potential.
The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 05/2013; 21(5):293-302. DOI:10.5435/JAAOS-21-05-293 · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Sprains of the first metatarsophalangeal (1MTP) joint, also known as turf toe, are debilitating athletic injuries. Because 85% of 1MTP sprains result from excessive hallux dorsiflexion, interventions that limit motion to subinjurious levels would greatly benefit athletes. Hallux dorsiflexion range of motion (hdROM) cannot be overly constrained, however, lest athletic performance be compromised. Therefore, the tolerance of the 1MTP joint to excessive dorsiflexion injury must be quantified before appropriate hdROM limitations may be developed. The purpose of this study was to develop a quantitative injury risk function for 1MTP sprains on the basis of hallux dorsiflexion angle.
Twenty cadaveric limbs were tested to both subinjurious and injurious levels of hallux dorsiflexion. Motion capture techniques were used to track six-degree-of-freedom motion of the first proximal phalanx, first metatarsal, and calcaneus. Specimens were examined by physicians posttest to diagnose injury occurrence and ensure clinical relevance of the injuries.
A two-parameter Weibull hazard function analysis reveals that a 50% risk of injury occurs at 78° of dorsiflexion from anatomical zero.
Methods presented here drove cadaveric 1MTP joints to various degrees of dorsiflexion, resulting in both noninjurious and injurious trials, which were formed into an injury risk function.
Medicine and science in sports and exercise 05/2013; 45(11). DOI:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182994a10 · 3.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Turf toe injury typically describes an injury to the metatarsosesamoid complex of the hallux generally caused by a hyperextension force to the great toe. This injury may be accompanied by pain, deformity, and decreased athletic performance. Operative treatment to repair the damaged tissue can be difficult, and we present a technique description that may help simplify the surgical reconstruction.Levels of Evidence: Level V.
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