Phthalates are a group of chemicals present in numerous consumer products. They have anti-androgenic properties in experimental studies and are suspected to be involved in human male reproductive health problems. A few studies have shown associations between phthalate exposure and changes in pubertal timing among girls, although controversies exist. We determined the concentration of 12 phthalate metabolites in first morning urine samples from 725 healthy Danish girls (aged 5.6-19.1 years) in relation to age, pubertal development (breast and pubic hair stage) and reproductive hormone levels (luteinizing hormone, oestradiol and testosterone). Furthermore, urinary phthalates were determined in 25 girls with precocious puberty (PP). In general, the youngest girls with less advanced pubertal development had the highest first morning urinary concentration of the monobutyl phthalate isoforms (∑MBP((i+n))), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (∑DEHPm) and of di-iso-nonyl phthalate (∑DINPm). After stratification of the urinary phthalate excretion into quartiles, we found that the age at pubarche was increasing with increasing phthalate metabolite quartiles (except for MEP). This trend was statistically significant when all phthalate metabolites (except MEP) were summarized and expressed as quartiles. No association between phthalates and breast development was observed. In addition, there were no differences in urinary phthalate metabolite levels between girls with PP and controls. We demonstrated that delayed pubarche, but not thelarche, was associated with high phthalate excretion in urine samples from 725 healthy school girls, which may suggest anti-androgenic actions of phthalates in our study group of girls.
"Phthalates have been shown to affect later life events such as reproduction in mammalian species (Frederiksen et al., 2012; Giribabu et al., 2014; Higuchi et al., 2003; Noriega et al., 2009; Tyl et al., 2004; Yamasaki et al., 2009). However, there is a critical lack of data on the chronic effects of phthalates in amphibians. "
"female adolescents in Puerto Rico reported that higher levels of DEP, DBP, DEHP, and MEHP were related to premature thelarche, suggesting estrogenic and antiandrogenic activity of plasticizers (Colon et al., 2000). However, other studies in Denmark assessing exposures of first morning urinary phthalate concentration (Frederiksen et al., 2012), Western Australia about prenatal exposure of phthalate metabolites (Hart et al., 2014), and US for high-molecular weight phthalate metabolites in urine samples at baseline (Wolff et al., 2014) reported delayed pubarche (Frederiksen et al., 2012), polycystic ovarian morphology (Hart et al., 2014), and delayed puberty hair development of stage 2 (Wolff et al., 2014). "
"The widespread human exposure to phthalates has raised concerns for the general population and potentially susceptible subpopulations such as pregnant women and children . Recently, internal exposure to certain phthalates has been associated with various adverse health effects including obesity, neurodevelopmental and reproductive disorders (Swan et al., 2005; Sathyanarayana, 2008; Swan, 2008; Bornehag and Nanberg, 2010; Engel et al., 2010; Swan et al., 2010; Frederiksen et al., 2012; Teitelbaum et al., 2012; Braun et al., 2013; Miodovnik et al., 2014). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Some phthalates and also bisphenol A (BPA) interfere with the human endocrine system and are labelled as reproductive toxicants. Children's exposure to these contaminants is suspected to be associated with developmental disorders and other health impairments. We provide biomonitoring data on 21 urinary phthalate metabolite and BPA levels in first morning urine of 8–10 year old children. Participants were children born between 1999 and 2002 of the Duisburg birth cohort (8–9 years, N = 113) and of the Bochum cohort study (8–10 years, N = 352). Additionally, for the Duisburg birth cohort we compare current data of children from Duisburg (8–9 years) with data from 2 years earlier when the children were 6–7 years old. We analyzed influences of important covariates on exposure levels by multiple regression analysis and those from two sampling time points by generalized equation estimation models adjusted for important covariates. Compared to recently published studies the phthalate metabolite and BPA concentrations were within the range of background levels. There were no significant differences between children from Bochum and Duisburg. Comparison between the two Duisburg birth cohort data sets (2007–2008 and 2009–2010) showed significant correlations for most of the phthalate metabolites (rSpearman between 0.25 and 0.51; p ≤ 0.05) but not for BPA (r = 0.162; p = 0.143). Most of the phthalate metabolites in the groups of the 6–7 and 8–9 years old Duisburg children were negatively associated with higher age, except for BPA concentrations with nearly constant levels. Exposure levels may be influenced by changes in child specific exposure patterns with age but also by the rapidly changing phthalate market.
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 11/2014; 217(8):830-838. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheh.2014.06.001 · 3.83 Impact Factor
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