Exposure and Kinetics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Cigarette Smokers

Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.
Chemical Research in Toxicology (Impact Factor: 3.53). 03/2012; 25(4):952-64. DOI: 10.1021/tx300043k
Source: PubMed


Our study objectives were (1) to investigate the selectivity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites for tobacco smoke exposure and (2) to determine half-lives of PAH metabolites in smokers. There were 622 participants from the United States (US) and Poland, and of these, 70% were smokers. All subjects provided spot urine samples, and 125 smokers provided blood samples. Urinary PAH metabolite half-lives were determined in 8 smokers. In controlled hospital studies of 18 smokers, the associations between various measures of nicotine intake and urinary excretion of PAH metabolites were investigated. Plasma nicotine was measured by GC. LC-MS/MS was used to measure the plasma levels of cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, and urine levels of nicotine and its metabolites, total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and PAH metabolites (2-naphthol, 1-, 2-, and 3-hydroxyfluorenes, 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxyphenanthrenes, and 1-hydroxypyrene). Regardless of smoking status, PAH metabolite excretion was higher in Polish subjects than in US subjects (p-values <0.001). 1-Hydroxyfluorene exhibited the greatest difference between smokers and nonsmokers, with a 5-fold difference in Polish subjects and a 25-fold difference in US subjects, followed by 3- and 2-hydroxyfluorenes, 2-naphthol, and 1-hydroxypyrene. The differences for hydroxyphenanthrenes were small or nonsignificant. 1-Hydroxyfluorene had the highest correlation with urine nicotine equivalents (r = 0.77) and urine NNAL (r = 0.64). While the half-lives of PAH metabolites were <10 h in smokers, 1-hydroxyfluorene had the largest ratio of initial to terminal urine concentration (58.4 ± 38.6, mean ± SD) after smoking. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis of PAHs among Polish and US subjects further showed that hydroxyfluorenes are most highly discriminative of smokers from nonsmokers followed by 2-naphthol and 1-hydroxypyrene. In conclusion, hydroxyfluorenes, particularly 1-hydroxyfluorene, and 2-naphthol are more selective of tobacco smoke than 1-hydroxypyrene and hydroxyphenanthrenes. Characterization of hydroxyfluorene and 2-naphthol metabolites in urine may improve the characterization of PAHs from tobacco smoke and related disease risks among smokers and nonsmokers.

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Available from: Gideon St.Helen, Feb 13, 2015
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    • "They are generated during the incomplete combustion of fossil fuel, oil refinement, and industrial and municipal discharges. Also, tobacco and barbequed or smoked meat are potential matrices to find the PAHs [1] [2]. PAHs have attracted attention of biochemists and analytical chemists because of their carcinogenicity, mutagenicity , toxicity and environmental persistence. "
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    ABSTRACT: In the present research, ultrasonic-assisted emulsification-microextraction (USAEME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been proposed for analysis of thirteen environmental protection agency (EPA) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aqueous samples. Tetrachloroethylene was selected as extraction solvent. The main parameters of USAEME affecting the efficiency of the method were modeled and optimized using a central composite design (CCD). Under the optimum conditions (9μL for extraction solvent, 1.15% (w/v) NaCl (salt concentration) and 10min for ultrasonication time), preconcentration factor (PF) of the PAHs was in the range of 500-950. In order to have a comprehensive analysis, multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) as a second-order calibration algorithm was used for resolution, identification and quantification of the target PAHs in the presence of uncalibrated interferences. The regression coefficients and relative errors (REs, %) of calibration curves of the PAHs were in the satisfactory range of 0.9971-0.9999 and 1.17-6.59%, respectively. Furthermore, analytical figures of merit (AFOM) for univariate and second-order calibrations were obtained and compared. As an instance, the limit of detections (LODs) of target PAHs were in the range of 1.87-18.9 and 0.89-6.49ngmL(-1) for univariate and second-order calibration, respectively. Finally, the proposed strategy was used for determination of target PAHs in real water samples (tap and hookah waters). The relative recoveries (RR) and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 68.4-109.80% and 2.15-6.93%, respectively. It was concluded that combination of multivariate chemometric methods with USAEME-GC-MS can be considered as a new insight for the analysis of target analytes in complex sample matrices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Chromatography A 08/2015; 1413. DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2015.08.026 · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    • "The general population is exposed to PAHs from the environment through small-sized respirable particles, water and food, as well as from the occupational environment (6). The most widespread manner of PAH input is the inhalation of exhaust gases, tobacco smoke, and the usage of products and materials containing PAHs (7). Contrary to popular opinion, alimentary exposure causes a higher rate of human exposure to PAHs than air pollutants do (8). "
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    ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most prevalent environmental pollutants and result from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons (coal and gasoline, fossil fuel combustion, byproducts of industrial processing, natural emission, cigarette smoking, etc.). The first phase of xenobiotic biotransformation in the PAH metabolism includes activities of cytochrome P450 from the CYP1 family and microsomal epoxide hydrolase. The products of this biotransformation are reactive oxygen species that are transformed in the second phase through the formation of conjugates with glutathione, glucuronate or sulphates. PAH exposure may lead to PAH-DNA adduct formation or induce an inflammatory atherosclerotic plaque phenotype. Several genetic polymorphisms of genes encoded for enzymes involved in PAH biotransformation have been proven to lead to the development of diseases. Enzyme CYP P450 1A1, which is encoded by the CYP1A1 gene, is vital in the monooxygenation of lipofilic substrates, while GSTM1 and GSTT1 are the most abundant isophorms that conjugate and neutralize oxygen products. Some single nucleotide polymorphisms of the CYP1A1 gene as well as the deletion polymorphisms of GSTT1 and GSTM1 may alter the final specific cellular inflammatory respond. Occupational exposure or conditions from the living environment can contribute to the production of PAH metabolites with adverse effects on human health. The aim of this study was to obtain data on biotransformation and atherosclerosis, as well as data on the gene polymorphisms involved in biotransformation, in order to better study gene expression and further elucidate the interaction between genes and the environment.
    Biochemia Medica 10/2013; 23(3):255-65. DOI:10.11613/BM.2013.032 · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be assessed by biomonitoring of their urinary monohydroxylated metabolites (OH-PAHs). Limited information exists on the human pharmacokinetics of OH-PAHs. This study aimed to investigate the excretion half-life of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-PYR), the most used biomarker for PAH exposure, and 9 other OH-PAHs following a dietary exposure in 9 nonsmoking volunteers with no occupational exposure to PAHs. Each person avoided food with known high PAH-content during the study period, except for a high PAH-containing lunch (barbecued chicken) on the first day. Individual urine samples (n = 217) were collected from 15 h before to 60 h following the dietary exposure. Levels of all OH-PAHs in all subjects increased rapidly by 9-141-fold after the exposure, followed by a decrease consistent with first-order kinetics, and returned to background levels 24-48 h after the exposure. The average time to reach maximal concentration ranged from 3.1 h (1-naphthol) to 5.5 h (1-PYR). Creatinine-adjusted urine concentrations for each metabolite were analyzed using a nonlinear mixed effects model including a term to estimate background exposure. The background-adjusted half-life estimate was 3.9 h for 1-PYR and ranged 2.5-6.1 h for the other 9 OH-PAHs, which in general, were shorter than those previously reported. The maximum concentrations after barbecued chicken consumption were comparable to the levels found in reported occupational settings with known high PAH exposures. It is essential to consider the relatively short half-life, the timing of samples relative to exposures, and the effect of diet when conducting PAH exposure biomonitoring studies.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 06/2012; 25(7):1452-61. DOI:10.1021/tx300108e · 3.53 Impact Factor
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